Best Leading Technical Indicators - Technical Analysis for Trading! cover

Best Leading Technical Indicators – Technical Analysis for Beginners!

Leading Technical Indicators Explained: Has it ever intrigued you, as to why do we have so many Technical Indicator tools and why don’t all the indicators work at the same time and also in the same magnitude? The answer to this question is very simple. This is because not all technical indicators are the same and they can be classified as leading and lagging indicators.

There are certain indicators that try to pre-empt the likely move in the market. They use different ingredients and try to understand what could be the likely move in the prices of the underlying asset. These indicators are called Leading Indicators. On the other hand, there are certain indicators that try to understand the historical price movement and do a post mortem analysis. These are called Lagging Indicators.

Today, we will try to understand the best leading technical indicators that stock traders should definitely know. Keep reading.

What are Leading Technical Indicators?

Leading technical indicators are those Indicators that try to analyze the data received from past price movements and try to pre-empt or predict the future price movements. They allow traders to anticipate future price movements.

However, one needs to be careful while using leading indicators as they have a tendency to give out wrong information (for obvious reason as it is a prediction). Nonetheless, if the results turn out to be true then they can provide substantial returns.

ALSO READ

Most Common Technical Indicators -Trading Basics for Beginner!

Now, let us discuss the Best Leading Technical Indicators in detail that every stock trader should know:

1) RSI (Relative Strength Index)

The concept of RSI was developed by J.Wells Wilder and it is widely accepted as one of the Leading Momentum Indicators.

RSI is a very popular methodology amongst traders as it gives strong signals even during sideways and non-trending days​. The value of RSI oscillates between 0 and 100​. The default number of days while calculating RSI is 14 days​.

  • If the market starts to trade around 20 levels, then the falling momentum is expected to pause and we could be seeing a bullish reversal in the market.
  • On the other hand, if the market trades around 80 levels on the RSI scale, the bullish momentum is expected to be halted and we could be seeing a bearish reversal in the market.

Interpreting RSI

RSI on NIFTY | Best Leading Technical Indicators

(Source: Zerodha Kite, RSI on Nifty)

Now, if we look at the image above, we see the RSI indicator being applied on the daily chart of Nifty. The RSI is applied on the bottom half of the chart.

As we see that the market is in a bearish momentum and the momentum looks like it wants to continue. But, if we look at the RSI scale, we see market trading below the 20 levels and which is where the falling momentum is expected to be halted (at least technically).

RSI indicator gave this momentum even as the market was still declining. But soon, we see selling momentum fizzling out. Once we see a higher low pattern formation on the chart, more buying seems to come in the market and fresh buying momentum follows soon.

If in the bullish market, we see the RSI scale touching 80 and starting to turn downwards, the bulls and long position are required to be careful as we could see a bearish reversal in the market.

One needs to be careful while overcommitting to these indicators, as the leading indicators are trying to predict the market and as we are aware that the predictions have the tendency to go wrong.

2) MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence)

MACD is an Acronym for Moving Average Convergence and Divergence. It is one of the most prominent and the most reliable form of leading technical indicator. The Concept of Bollinger Bands was developed by Gerald Appel in the ’70s.

As the name would suggest, MACD is a convergence and divergence of two moving averages. Therefore, convergence here is the movement of two moving averages towards each other. And divergence is the movement of two moving averages away from each other.

Interpreting MACD

MACD is calculated by using a 12 day EMA and 26 EMA​. The convergence or divergence is calculated by subtracting 26 EMA from 12 EMA​. And a simple line graph is plotted from the calculated values and it is called a “MACD line”​.

If the 12 EMA is higher than 26 EMA, it means that there is positive momentum in the market because the short-term EMA is a better indicator of current market strength​. If the 12 EMA is below 26 EMA, that means that there is negative momentum in the market​.

The difference between the two EMA is the MACD spread​. When the share/stock is in momentum, then the spread increases​. And the spread decreases when the momentum dwindles. We should look for buying opportunities when the spread is positive and vice-versa when the spread is negative.

MACD on Reliance Industries | Best Leading Technical Indicators

(Source: Zerodha Kite, MACD on Reliance)

Now, the chart above is the daily chart of Reliance Industries and MACD has been used as a technical indicator. If we look at the chart above, a minimum of four trading opportunities has been spotted using the MACD indicator.

Starting from the left-hand side of the chart, in the first opportunity, when the MACD crosses from bottom to top, we get buying opportunity in the market. And the trade gives us a very substantial return of nearly 8-10% percent on the trade.

In the second opportunity, we get a selling chance in the market and even this trade gives us a return of more than 10% on the trade. A few more similar trade opportunities can be spotted in the market.

Again, importantly if we carefully look at the chart above, we see three MACD crossover trades in the market. A bearish trade when the MACD line goes below the 9 EMA line. And a buy trade when MACD crosses over 9 EMA on the upside.

Quick Read

Fundamental vs Technical Analysis of Stocks – Which one is Better?

Analyzing MACD

Following are MACD interpretations:

  • When the MACD line crosses the centerline (0 levels) from negative to positive territory, it means that there is a positive divergence​. It’s a sign of bullish momentum​
  • When the MACD line crosses the centerline (0 levels) from positive to negative territory, it means that there is a negative divergence​. It’s a sign of bearish momentum
  • Now, a lot of you could be of the view that MACD is lagging and gives a signal after the move has happened​. So, to improvise a simple 9 EMA is added. So whenever a crossover happens between MACD and 9 EMA, a trade opportunity is generated.
  • The 12 EMA and 26 EMA are not hard and fast rules, one can change those parameters depending on one’s own trading style and aggressiveness.

Closing Thoughts

Now from the discussion above, it can be seen that the best leading indicator gives us very profitable opportunities as we try to enter the trade before the actual move starts. But it does come with its own set of challenges because the leading indicators have a tendency to give false results.

That’s all for this post. We hope you have learned something new from our article on Leading Technical Indicators. Let us know your views in the comment section below. Happy Investing and Trading!!

How to use Options for Hedging - Options Hedging Strategy Explained!

How to use Options for Hedging? – Options Hedging Strategy Explained!

Options Hedging Strategy Explained: Imagine if you were holders of the shares of Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) and you have a bullish view on the share price of same over the long term. However, there is some current news that are doing rounds in the market and which are likely to have a negative impact on the share price of RIL over the short term.

How so can you use your existing shares to hedge your losses? We will try and answer this question here. In this post, we’ll cover how does one use options to hedge his existing positions. However, before we look into the Options hedging strategy, let us understand in brief the concept of Options trading and Hedging.

What are Options?

Options are a derivative product that derives its value from the value of the underlying asset. An option contract gives the holder, the right (not an obligation) to buy or sell the underlying asset depending on the kind of contract they hold.

If you are the holder of the Call Option, then you have the right to buy the underlying asset on or before expiry. And if you holder of the Put Option, then you have the right to sell the underlying asset on or before the expiration of the contract. You can read this article to understand the basics of options trading.

What is Hedging?

Hedging is a risk management strategy that is employed to offset the risk on the existing investments by taking an opposite position. The reduction in risk also comes with the condition of reduced profits if the hedging trades end up making losses.

In general, Hedging is done using derivative products like Futures and Options. You can read this article to understand the basic concept of hedging in detail. However, through this discussion, we will be focusing on Using Options for Hedging.

Now, let us continue with our discussion on “How to Use Option to Hedge?” with the existing position of RIL. Now, the simple way to Hedge a long (or buy) position in the shares of the company is with buying Put Option (Right or sell at a predetermined price upon expiry) or to sell a Call option (Pocket the premium from the buyer of Call Option).

However, if only, it were as simple as that.

Hedging using Options comes with its own set of challenges. Time of entry, strike price to enter, number of lots to enter with, premium to be paid to enter the option position, etc., are few questions which we need to consider. Here are few strategies that we will be discussing to understand the hedging strategies which can be used.

Two Easy Option Hedging Strategies

Here are two Options Hedging Strategy that we will be discussing in this post:

  1. Covered Call &
  2. Married Put

Usually, the strategies are designed with the help of a minimum of two option positions running simultaneously. But these two strategies are used when one is looking to hedge the existing position.

What is Covered Call Strategy?

A covered call is a very popular and most commonly used strategy when one is bullish on the stock and wants to hedge his position against a decline (short term) in the price of the underlying.

To execute this strategy, one needs to have an existing long position in underlying stocks, and simultaneously write/sell one call option for an equal number of shares of the same underlying stock.

Note: This strategy is more fruitful when one is having an existing long position in the shares of the company and wants to either improve his entry price or exit price.

Let us understand how the covered call strategy works:

  • Assume the Stock under consideration here is XYZ company.
  • I have bought 200 shares of this company at a price of Rs. 95
  • The Current Price (CMP) of shares of XYZ company is Rs. 106 and it is trading near its 52 weeks high and we could see some correction in its price.
  • But rather than exiting at the existing price, I am looking to better my exit price or improve my point of entry. In order to do so, I will be implementing the Covered Call Strategy.

Now moving forward,

  • I look for a Call Option Strike Price that is above the Spot price.
  • Therefore, I choose the 110 CE (Call option) strike price and it is trading at a premium of Rs 4
  • Days left for expiry: 4 days
  • Upon expiry, if the buyer of the option wants to exercise his right, then I will be selling my stock position at Rs. 114 (strike price + premium received). And which is way above the current spot price of Rs. 106.
  • I would still be making a sizable profit of Rs. 19 (114-95) per share.
  • A sizable return of 20% on investment (Buy at 95, sell at 114)
  • Say, if upon expiry if the share price of XYZ does not go beyond 110, I stand to pocket the premium of Rs. 4 per share.
  • And the effective buy price of my share now is Rs. 91 (95-4)

Overall with the help of this strategy,

  • Either the profit potential gets increased or
  • We improve our entry price of the existing position.

What is Married Put Strategy?

Under Married Put Strategy, an investor has an existing long position in the shares of a company and simultaneously buys a put option for the same with an equal number of shares.

The rationale behind buying this strategy is to protect the downside risk just in case the share price of the underlying asset goes down. This strategy is very attractive as one can limit his loss just in case the stock price goes down because of unforeseen scenarios.

Let us understand this strategy with the help of an example:

  • Assume, I bought 200 shares of XYZ company at a price of Rs. 81
  • The CMP (Current Market Price) of XYZ company is Rs.98
  • To cover my risk of losing handsome returns, I am looking to take insurance against the fall in the price of XYZ company.
  • Now, I do so by buying Married Put Strategy.
  • After doing careful analysis by using Option Chain, I decide to buy 95 PE (Put option) by paying a premium of Rs. 2
  • The Option still has 12 days to expiry
  • If upon expiry of a Put option, it expires worthless and the price of one share of XYZ company is Rs. 100
  • Then, I just stand to lose the premium of Rs. 2, and the buy price of my share trails up to Rs. 83 (81 +2)
  • But compared to the CMP, I am still making a profit of Rs. 17 (100-83) per share
  • And if the share price of XYZ company upon expiry, comes down to Rs. 85
  • Then, on the Put option bought, I will be making a profit of Rs. 8 (95-2-85) per share
  • In that case, also the buy price of XYZ company share reduces to Rs. (81-8) i.e., Rs. 73 per share.
  • In any case, the minimum profit on shares of XYZ company is Rs. 12 per share, till the expiry of the option contract.

Therefore, this strategy is like buying an insurance policy against the weakness in the share and the maximum profit potential is still limitless minus the premium paid for buying a put option.

ALSO READ

What is a Hedge Fund? And How do they operate?

Closing Thoughts

Hedging becomes a very integral part of any trader’s or investor’s day-to-day activity. It helps them to either protect their profits or improve their point of entry or to at least maintain their existing position and manage the volatility.

A proper understanding of the concept of options trading and the implementation of their strategies goes a long way if one wants to have a proper understanding of the art of hedging.

That’s all for this post. We hope you have learned something new from our article on Options Hedging Strategy. Let us know your views in the comment section below. Happy Investing and Trading!

Greatest Traders of All Time Cover

Greatest Traders of All Time: Top 5 Most Famous Traders in Stock Market!

List of the Most Famous Traders of All Time: Being a successful part of the world of trading already sets you apart from the rest. But have you ever wondered what it would be like to be one of the very best traders in the world? Don’t worry we have come up with a list of the greatest traders of all time that you’d probably have to take on to even contend for the title. 

Top 5 Greatest Traders of All Time

1. George Soros

George Soros in his office | Greatest Traders of All Time

Billionaire George Soros aka “the king of Forex trading” or the “The Man Who Broke the Bank of England” is, without doubt, the greatest trader. But growing up a Jew in the midst of WW2 and due to the struggles he went through no one would have predicted his rise. 

Born Gyorgy Schwartz, his family had their names changed to survive the way and fly under the Nazi radar. Making to England Soros worked jobs as a waiter or railway porter before he graduated from the London School of Economics. This finally paved the way for him into the world of banking when he got a job at Singer and Friedlander as a merchant banker. 

Thanks to his father’s help he moved to the US to work at a Wall Street Brokerage firm. After several successful stints helping him move up the ladder at various firms he decided to establish his own hedge fund in 1970 called “Quantum”. 

It is here where Soros rose to fame. His most important trade came in 1990 when he decided to short the British Pound. A couple of years before the trade took place Quantum kept buying the British Pound and accumulated 3.9 billion pounds. In addition to this Soros borrowed to bring the total pound holdings of the fund to 5.5 billion pounds.

 On September 9 the pound began to fall. This prompted Soros to short all 5.5 billion pounds against the German Mark on September 16 – the day we now know as Black Wednesday. Soror managed to make $1 billion in a single day due to this trade. This caught the Bank of England in a corner forcing them to withdraw from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism.

This earned him the title of “The Man who Broke the Bank of England”. 

Soros used a similar strategy during the ASEAN financial crisis of 1997. Here Soros targeted the Indonesian, Philippines, and Singaporean currency. The crisis financially put the countries back 15 years.  

Apart from his trading success, Soros is known for his philanthropy. Although he is currently worth $8.6 billion Soros has donated over 80% of his wealth.

2. Jesse Livermore

Jesse Livermore Portrait Image

If there’s another movie ever made on a trader it should be based on the story of Jesse Livermore. Born in 1877, Livermore ran away from home to escape the life of farming which he was otherwise destined for. 

Once he made it to Boston he began posting quotes for a stockbroker as a 15-year-old. It was here that Livermore bought his first share and earned a profit of $3.12 with a capital of just $5. He soon started making more money trading stocks than what he was paid. This prompted him to leave his job and begin placing leveraged bets at stock prices. Jesse Livermore was soo good at his trades that he was eventually banned from Bucket Shops where he placed his bets. 

He then began trading at Wall Street but faced huge losses. These however were not due to any mistake of his own but because the ticker tape was not updated fast enough. He finally got a break at the age of 24 when he converted $10,000 into $500,000. By the age of 30 Livermore was making a million a day during the Panic of 1907.

Livermore was now at the top of his game which made him a well-known elite but despite this, he went bankrupt twice by 1915.

Following WW1 Livermore began buying cotton in order to gain control of the market. He had to be stopped by the then US President Woodrow Wilson. It was on Woodrow’s request that Livermore refrained from further acting on cotton.

 “To see if I could, Mr. President.”

This famous quote came into being when President Woodrow inquired Livermore on why he was trying to corner the cotton market. What set him truly apart was during the crash of 1929. It was here when market crashes were not even known about, Livermore took huge short positions taking his fortunes to $100 million. This would have made him a billionaire today. This earned him the title “The Great Bear of Wall Street.”

What truly set him apart was his ability to bounce back to great fortunes despite facing bankruptcies 3 times in his life. Jesse Livermore however didn’t survive his third bankruptcy and died after committing suicide.

3. Paul Tudor Jones

Paul Tudor Jones during a conference | Greatest Traders of All Time

Paul Tudor Jones was one of the world’s leading hedge fund managers. Jones began his trading career as a clerk working for the biggest cotton merchants – Eli Tullis in the 1970s. Unknown to many Jones was fired by Tullis after he fell asleep at his desk after a night of partying. 

Jones found his own hedge fund in 1980 named Tudor Futures Fund. What’s astonishing to this day is that the fund managed to earn 100% returns during its first 5 years. What set him apart was when he shorted a couple of stocks before the 1987 stock market crash. This earned him around $100 million. This also earned him the nickname Black Monday Prophet.

Five years post this Jones went onto become the chairman of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Today Jones is worth over $5 billion and is also known for his philanthropic works through the Robin Hood Foundation.

4. Jim Simons

Jim Simons giving lecture to students

Known as the “World smartest billionaire” or “Quant King”, Jim Simons is clearly a class apart on Wall Street. Simons, a well-regarded mathematician for his Chern-Simons theory also broke Russian codes during the Cold War.

Simons didn’t enter the stock market until his late thirties. What set him apart from the rest as he was one of the pioneers to trade based on quant, data analysis, and pattern recognition. After setting up the hedge fund Renaissance Technologies, Simons made it his mission to avoid Wall Street brains at all cost hiring only scientists and mathematicians. From 1994 to 2014 Renaissance Technologies Medallion fund gave a whopping 71.8% return. You must be wondering why you haven’t heard of the Medallion fund. This is probably because Simons closed the fund to all outsiders except employees of the company in 2005. 

Simons is today worth $24.6 billion making him one of the most successful and greatest traders of all time. 

ALSO READ

The World’s Greatest Fund – Jim Simons’ Medallion fund!

5. Steve Cohen

Steve Cohen during a conference conversation | Greatest Traders of All Time

Billionaire Steve Cohen came from an economics and poker background. He entered the stock market in 1978 after securing a job at investment banking firm Gruntal. Cohen started off by making $8,000 on his first day and eventually moved on to make $100,000 per day for the firm. 

Cohen left Gruntal in 1992 and opened his own hedge fund – SAC Capital Partners. It was here where Cohen became known for his ability to make money under any market condition. By 2011 Cohen was the 35th richest person in the US according to Forbes. Despite having a net worth of $14 billion, Cohen still works at his firm. It is reported that almost 15% of his company’s profits are due to operations performed by him. 

In Closing 

What do you think about our list of the greatest traders of all time? Let us know in the comments the names you feel should be on this list. You might also be interested to know about the world’s greatest fund. Happy Trading!

Top 7 Must Read Books for Trading in Stock Markets Cover

Top 7 Must Read Books for Trading in Stock Markets

List of Best Books For Trading: As one decides to take up trading there are several alternatives available. The best among all these alternatives being books. These would save novice traders a lot of time and money by helping them avoid several of these mistakes. Here is a list of some books which we feel are masterpieces when it comes to the world of trading.

Top 7 Books for Trading in the Stock Market

1. How to make Money in Stocks by William O’Neil

How to make millions in Stocks by William O’Neil

 The book is written by William a stockbroker and founder of the stock brokerage firm William O’Neil & Co. Inc in 1963. The book includes the CAN SLIM strategy which was invented by O’Neil and helped him become one of the top-performing brokers. Today this method is celebrated throughout the trading community worldwide.

Another fact which sets this book apart is that it is written based on research of over 100 years of stock price movements. The topics in the book include charts and notes along with a wide range of strategies and tips. 

2.  Getting Started in Technical Analysis by Jack Schwager – Best Books for Trading

Getting Started in Technical Analysis by Jack Schwager - Best Books for Trading

This is one of the best books available for any person looking to start out trading. Jack D. Schwager is a widely acclaimed trader and author.

He is also one of the founders of Fund Seeder where trading talents are discovered throughout the world and connected. The book comes with many examples and covers almost every basic topic.

However, the book is not only focused on the basics but also covers several chart patterns, technical indicators, and also explains how to identify entry and exit points. This book is one of the best starting points to set up a good foundation for trading.

3. Reminiscences of a Stock Operator by Edwin Lefèvre 

Reminiscences of a Stock Operator by Edwin Lefèvre

Just like every other genre trading too has its own set of classic books. Published in 1923, Reminiscences of a Stock Operator being one of them. The book is written by Edwin Lefèvre but is based on the legendary trader Jesse Livermore.

The book does not follow the same monotonous format by includes stories or better put the journey which provides a better insight into trading and the life of a trader. These stories also include instances that made successful trades and instances that could destroy a trader. 

ALSO READ

Value Investing and Behavioral Finance by Parag Parikh – Book Review

4. Technical Analysis of the Financial Markets by John J. Murphy – Best Books for Trading

Technical Analysis of the Financial Markets by John J. Murphy - Best Books for Trading

This book provides a great comprehensive introduction to technical analysis. The book is written by John J. Murphy who has worked as a technical analyst for CNBC for over 4 decades.

Although this is another important book for those entering the world of technical analysis what sets it apart is Murphy’s ability to convey complex topics in an easy-to-understand manner. You can find the book on Amazon here.

5. Stocks on the Move: Beating the Market with Hedge Fund Momentum Strategies by Andreas Clenow

Stocks on the Move: Beating the Market with Hedge Fund Momentum Strategies by Andreas Clenow

Stocks on the move is one of the most famous trading books that also gives an insight into trading strategies used by Hedge Funds. The author, Andreas Clenow has a stellar resume having worked for Reuters, founding and managing multiple hedge funds.

The book includes a detailed step-by-step explanation for his momentum trading strategy. The book also includes statistical evidence and backtested results. However, the book may be overwhelming to someone who has no base in statistics.

6. Market Wizards book series by Jack Schwager – Best Books for Trading

Market Wizards book series by Jack Schwager - Best Books for Trading

The market wizards book series is one of the most important trading books as it includes interviews with several top traders. This is the second time Jack Schwager appears on this list.

The series includes Market Wizards (1989), The New Market Wizards (1992), Stock Market Wizards (2001), and Unknown Market Wizards: The best traders you’ve never heard of (2020). These allow you to analyze the perspectives of several successful traders and also the challenges they faced.  

7. Japanese Candlestick Charting Techniques by Steve Nison

Japanese Candlestick Charting Techniques by Steve Nison

Candlestick charting technique is one of the most important tools used to analyze the market. Prior to Steve Nison’s work on this book, Candlestick charting was relatively unknown even in the west.

Thanks to this book the technique is one of the most widely used. The book gives a detailed explanation on the subject still making it easy to understand along with examples.

Bonus:  The Complete Turtle Trader: How 23 Novice Investors Became Overnight Millionaires

The Complete Turtle Trader: How 23 Novice Investors Became Overnight Millionaires

Another bonus book if you’ve made it so far into the list. The book covers the true story where 23 random stranger were included in a  2-week crash course on trading. Post the crash course the strangers were left to trade on their own. The book covers the strategies used by the 23 individuals which helped them make millions.

In Closing 

That’s all for this post. Let us know what you think about the books on the list in the comments section below. And also let us about the books you felt made the most difference in your trading journey. You may read ‘The Intelligent Investor by Benjamin Graham’ book review on our website as well. Happy Trading!

SGX Nifty meaning what is it

SGX Nifty Explained – How it affects Indian Share Market?

Understanding SXG Nifty meaning & its impact on Indian share market: If you are an active stock market trader in India, I’m sure that you would have definitely have heard of the term ‘SGX Nifty’. If you open any business news channel, then before the opening of the Indian equity market, all you will see is an hour-long discussion on the SGX Nifty and its implications on the opening of the Nifty for that day.

The importance of understanding this terminology can be seen from the fact that it is one of the most popular hashtags followed or searched over different social media platforms like Twitter, if one wants to have a better picture of the Indian Equity market. In this post, we are going to discuss what exactly is SGX nifty and how it affects Indian share market.

What is SGX Nifty?

The word SGX is an acronym for the Singapore Stock Exchange. Further, Nifty is the benchmark index of the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India and it is comprised of the top 50 companies listed on NSE. Overall, if we were to add these two constituents, we can say that SGX Nifty is the Indian Nifty trading on the Singapore Stock Exchange. It is an actively traded futures contract on Singapore Exchange.

sgx nifty price chart

(Source: Sgx.com)

Who is allowed to trade SGX Nifty?

Any investor who is interested in trading Nifty, but is not able to access Indian Markets, finds trading SGX Nifty a very good alternative to trade. Even the big hedge funds who have big exposure in the Indian market find SGX Nifty as a good alternative to hedge their positions.

Further, an Indian citizen is not allowed to trade SGX Nifty contracts. For that matter, Indian citizens are not allowed to trade derivatives in any other country.

Difference between Nifty and SGX Nifty?

1. SGX nifty is Nifty futures contract trading in Singapore Stock Exchange and in India, Nifty contract trades on NSE.

2. The contract size of SGX Nifty is different compared to Nifty. In India, we have 75 shares in every Nifty contract Lot whereas the SGX nifty does not have a contract with shares in it. SGX Nifty is denominated in terms of US dollars. Say, if Nifty is trading at 9500, then the contract size of SGX Nifty will be 9500*(2 USD) i.e., 19000 USD.

For example, if the Nifty moves up by 100 points for the day, then make a profit of 100 rupees per share.  Therefore, total profit in case of Nifty will be 100*75 = Rs 7,500. But in the case of SGX Nifty, we will be making a profit of 100*2 = 200 USD per contract.

3. Now, In India, in the case of Nifty, we see Open Interest as the ‘number of shares’ outstanding. But in the case of SGX Nifty the Open Interest shows the ‘number of contracts’ outstanding. Both Nifty and SGX Nifty are highly liquid and a very high volume of trading happens in that.

Also read: What is India VIX? Meaning, Range, Implications & More!

Trading Hours of SGX Nifty

SGX Nifty Futures

(Source: SGX Nifty)

The above figure is the value of SGX Nifty from the website on the Singapore Stock Exchange. It shows the value of SGX Nifty futures traded on SGX. In Singapore Nifty trades in two tranches. One part during the day time and it is denoted by ‘T’ (as seen in the picture above). The other half during the evening time and it is denoted by ‘T+1’. The trades happening in the evening will be considered in the next day settlement prices.

SGX Nifty Trading Timings

(Source: SGX Nifty)

Now, the above picture gives you details about the trading hours of SGX Nifty. The Trading hours mentioned here are Singapore time and the difference between Indian Standard Time and Singapore time is 2 hr 30 minutes. Therefore, we can see that in the Morning (T) session, it trades from 9 am to 6:10 pm Singapore Standard time.

So, in Indian Standard time, the trading happens at SG Nifty from 6:30 AM to 3:40 PM. And the Evening (T+1) session, it trades from 6:40 pm to 5:15 am Singapore Standard Time, which if converted to Indian Standard time will have timings of 4.10 pm to 2:45 am.

Contract Settlements in SGX Nifty

SGX Nifty has two serial monthly contracts and it has Quarterly contracts. The contract expires on the last Thursday of Every expiring month and if the last Thursday is an Indian holiday, then it expires the preceding business day. The SGX Nifty contracts are cash-settled and the final settlement price is derived from the official closing of S&P CNX Nifty.

How SGX Nifty Impacts Indian Equity Market?

Looking at the current global scenario, with the continuous onslaught of COVID-19 pandemic or the rising tensions between US-China over trade deal, we see a continuous inflow of information and news. And these inflow of information has a direct impact on the Global Financial markets.

SGX Nifty still trading way after the closure of the Indian Nifty market, we see an impact of these global news on the SGX Nifty price movement. This further directly impacts the opening pricing of Nifty, the very next day. And that is one of the reasons we see the Indian Nifty market opening at a premium or discount over the previous day’s close.

Note: Many analysts use SGX Nifty as one of the factors to predict whether the Indian stock market will open higher or lower on a trading session.

Closing Thoughts

In this post, we explained what is SGX Nifty and its impact on Indian share market. The SGX Nifty is a perfect substitute for investors and traders looking to trade in the Indian equity market but are not able to do so. It is a perfect hedging instrument if you are already exposed to the Indian equity market.

One unique advantage that SGX Nifty has longer trading hours compared to the Indian Equity market. And all these points make it a lucrative investment and trading avenue.

INDIA VIX MEANING

What is India VIX? Meaning, Range, Implications & More!

Understanding what is India Vix, its meaning & importance: Ever heard of India Vix? If you’re involved in the market for some time and particularly active in the share market during the COVID19 Pandemic, then I’m sure that you would definitely have come up with this term “India Vix” at least a couple of times mentioned on different financial news channels and websites.

In this post, we are going to discuss, what exactly is India Vix, its meaning, and how exactly it is important for the traders and investors to understand this term. Let’s get started.

What is India Vix?

India VIX is a short form for India Volatility Index. It is the volatility index that measures the market’s expectation of volatility over the near term. In other words, it explains the volatility that the traders expect over the next 30 days in the Nifty50 Index.

The India VIX value is derived by using the Black & Scholes (B&S) Model. The B&S Model uses five important variables like strike price, the market price of the stock, time to expiry, the risk-free rate, and volatility. India VIX was introduced by NSE in the year 2008, but the concept of VIX is quite old and is a trademark of CBOE (Chicago Board Options Exchange).

One simple way of understanding India VIX is that it is the expected annual change in the NIFTY50 index over a period of 30 days. For example, if the India VIX is currently at 11, this simply means that the traders expect 11% volatility for the next 30 days.

Further, for example, if the current index is trading at 9,000 and India VIX trading at 20. Then, expected volatility over next year over 30 days will be:

  • Index spot: 9,000
  • India Vix: 20
  • The expected downside for the year = 9000 – 20% of 9000 = 7200
  • The expected upside for the year = 9000+ 20% of 9000 = 10,800

Here, the expected range for the year is between (7,200 and 10, 800) for that index.

Quick Note: Before moving further, let me mention that one should not confuse India VIX with Market Index. Market Index gives information about the direction of the market. However, on the other hand VIX measures the volatility of the market.

Why is India VIX so important?

All the major directional moves in the market are usually preceded by a lot of choppiness or a lot of range play in the market. India VIX plays a very major role in understanding the confidence or fear factor amongst traders.

  • A lower VIX level usually implies that the market is confident about the movement and is expecting lower volatility and a stable range.
  • A higher VIX level usually signals high volatility and lower trader confidence about the current range of the market. A major directional move can be expected in the market and a quick broadening of range can be expected.

For example, during the sub-prime crisis, India VIX was trading at 55-60 (high of 90) levels and the market was in a state of panic and indecisiveness and hence the moves were erratic and hostile. Volatility and India VIX have a positive correlation. High volatility indicated high India VIX and vice-versa.

Similarly before COVID-19. India VIX had stayed below 30 (Since 2014). But since the epidemic disease broke out, the VIX has crossed the 30 level and is trading near 50 levels (trading above 80 for few days) and we have seen the Indian equity Index losing nearly 40 percent of its value and is trading near 8000 levels.

Overall, India VIX plays a major role in understanding the sentiment of the market.

But be aware of the fact, India VIX does not give any indication of the directional move in the market, it simply indicates the volatility in the market. So, anyone with a huge investment in Equities should keep a close eye on the movement of India VIX coz a similar movement in the shares of his portfolio cannot be ruled out.

Is there an ideal range for India VIX?

Theoretically speaking, VIX ranges between 15-35. But there have been outliers case of as low as 8 (very tight range) and as high as 90 (extreme volatility). If VIX moves close to Zero, then theoretically either the index can double or come to 0. However, usually, VIX has a tendency to revert back to mean.

india vix historical chart tradingview

(Source: Tradingview)

The figure above is the India Vix chart for the last 10 years. During the break of the global crisis of COVID-19 (March-April 2020), the global markets have faced a lot of heat and extreme volatility, and all the major global indices have lost nearly 35% from their recent highs and Indian equity market was no exception. With this level of volatility, India VIX had climbed up to all-time high levels of 90 for those couple of days.

Later, it seemed to stabilize after June-July 2020. For stability to return, the global factors will have to improve and the India Vix level should ideally come around 20 levels. The Current VIX level is 22 (March 2021) and the market seems to be stabilizing for now. But for the long-term stability of the market, sub 20 levels of VIX is desired.

What do these extreme Vix levels mean for Options Writers?

India VIX also plays a very major role in the pricing of Options. A higher India Vix levels usually signal more volatile prices for options and a stable range would mean that the options are priced reasonably cheaper.

Simply put, high VIX levels expose option writers to unlimited risk with limited rewards (Premium). A deep in out of money Put/Call option can become at the money or even In the money option in a matter of a couple of trading sessions.

ALSO READ:

Options Trading 101: The Big Cat of Trading World

For Example, the stock price of XYZ shares is Rs. 300, and a trader has sold 280 put option contract (2,000 shares) for a premium of Rs. 10 and the contract has still 7 days to expiry. So, with current volatility, the share price can come to Rs. 240 in 2 trading sessions. So the loss for option writer with still 5 days to expiry will be:

  • Strike price: Rs. 280
  • Spot price: Rs. 240
  • Premium Earned: Rs. 10

Here, the loss for option writer: Rs. (240+10-280) i.e., Rs. 30 loss per lot, which is a loss of Rs. 60,000 (2000*30) per lot. Therefore, ideally, the option writer should avoid writing contacts and even if they do, the premium charged should also be higher.

Summary

To summarize, India Vix is the volatility index that measures the market’s expectation of volatility over the near term. It can be said that India Vix is a silent yet very effective indicator to gauge the range play for Index, which in turn gives us a clear view of the expected movement of the share price.

Historically, large Vix levels have always been followed by a large movement in the indexes and share prices. Even the option pricing, the premiums charged also increase or decrease because of the Vix level changes.

7 Best Stock Market Apps that Makes Stock Research 10x Easier!

List of Best Stock Market Apps in India 2021: Now a day, if you are a stock market trader, then it’s essential for you to stay updated with every minute market movements. The modern stock market traders keep tabs on the rising and fall of the stocks on daily basis and sometimes that too hourly. The high-speed internet and handy mobile apps have made the life of traders simple, faster, and efficient. These financial apps help the traders to stay informed and ready all the time.

From checking the real-time streaming market price of the stock, making a virtual portfolio, drawing stocks charts, following market trends to tracking your portfolio; everything is now accessible from your smartphone or tablet.

Therefore, today I am going to present to you the 7 Best Stock Market Apps that will make your stock research easier in India. Moreover, all the apps listed here are free. In short, be with me for the next 5-8 minutes to learn the best stock market apps for Indian stock research.

7 Best Stock Market Apps in India 2021

1. MoneyControl

best stock market apps money control

Play store rating: 4.1/5 Stars (349k Reviews)
Downloads: +10 Million
Available on: Android, IoS, Windows

This is my personal favorite mobile app for stock market news and updates. If you are planning to keep only one stock market app on your smartphone, then I will highly recommend you to have this one. The money control app is simple, yet has tons of information and news.

You can track the latest updates on Indian and Global financial markets on your smartphone with the Moneycontrol App. It covers multiple assets from BSE, NSE, MCX, and NCDEX exchanges, so you can track Indices (Sensex & Nifty), Stocks, Futures, Options, Mutual Funds, Commodities, and Currencies with ease.

Key Features:

  • Ease of Use: Easy navigation to all financial data, portfolio, watchlist and message board. Single search bar with voice search for stocks, indices, mutual funds, commodities, news, etc
  • Latest Market Data: Latest quotes of stocks, F&O, mutual funds, commodities and currencies from BSE, NSE, MCX, and NCDEX
  • News: All-day coverage of news related to markets, business and economy; plus interviews of senior management
  • Portfolio: Easy monitoring your portfolio across Stocks, Mutual Funds, ULIPs, and Bullion. Timely updates on the performance of your portfolio, and news & alerts relating to stocks you hold
  • Personalized Watchlist: Adding your favorite stocks, mutual funds, commodities, futures, and currencies to monitor. Get timely alerts in form of news and corporate action
  • Message Board: Follow your favorite topics and the top borders to get recommendations. Engage and participate in conversations relating to your portfolio or interest

You can download from google playstore here

(Source: Money Control)

2. Stock Edge

stock edge

Play store rating: 4.4/5 Stars (29k Reviews)
Downloads: +1 Million
Available on: Android, iOS

Stock Edge helps Indian Stock market traders and investors do their own research and make better decisions by providing them with end-of-day analytics and visualizations and alerts.

Key Features

  • Daily Updates Section for filtered major market tracking with News, NSE & BSE Corporate Announcements, Forthcoming events, & Corporate Actions and more.
  • FII/ FPI & DII Cash and Derivatives with strong historical data visualization Daily, Monthly & Yearly.
  • Opportunity Scans: Price Scans, Last week high/ low, Last Month high/ low, 52 weeks high/low, 3 days price behavior, etc
  • Track what Big Indian Investors are doing. Use MyInvestorGroup section to create your own group of Investors with their multiple names/entities etc
  • Sector Research: Sector List, Industries in a sector, Companies in a sector/Industry, Price Movement of last 30 days presented in a simple graph, Gainers, Losers etc.

You can download StockEdge App here!

3. Economic Times(ET) Markets

best stock market apps et market

Play store rating: 4.7/5 Stars (45k Stars)
Downloads: +1 Million
Available on: Android, IoS, Windows

This is another of the best stock market apps. I regularly use ET Markets app for reading market news and updates as they provide the best latest news. Moreover, the stock details feature on this app is always very well organized.

Key Features:

  • To track BSE Sensex, NSE Nifty charts live and get share prices with advanced technical charting.
  • Follow stock quotes real time, get tips on intraday trading, stock futures, commodities, forex market, ETFs on the go.
  • One-stop destination for mutual fund news, NAVs, portfolio updates, fund analysis, SIP calculator
  • Simple swipe to build, manage and access your portfolio; get customized news, analysis and data of the Indian stock market
  • To create your watchlist and track them regularly
  • Get analyses/expert views delivered to you, participate in discussions/conversations through comments

You can download ET Markets app here

4. Tickertape

tickertape app android

Play store rating: 4.5/5 Stars (9.3k reviews)
Downloads: +1 Million
Available on: Android, IoS,

This app has become quite popular in the best stock market apps in India in recent months and relatively newer when compared to other apps in this list. Tickertape is a modern stock analysis platform that is designed for keeping you at the center of the process. It focuses on salient metric analysis with powerful tools and robust ecosystem support that can be a catalyst to improve your knowledge about the market and their participation in the same.

Key Features:

  • Detailed stock analysis for all the publically listed companies in India.
  • Advanced Screener with 130 filters for you to analyze any Indian stocks.
  • Market mood Index (MMI) which is the market sentiment indicator trusted to correctly time their trades.
  • Peer comparisons, news, and events are presented in such a way that will help in your investment decisions.
  • Finally, Broker Connect to help you log in and connect your broker account to the Tickertape account.

You can download Tickertape app here

5. Yahoo Finance

best stock market apps yahoo finance

Play store rating: 4.1/5 Stars (171k reviews)
Downloads: +10 Million
Available on: Android, IoS, Windows

First of all, after downloading this app, you need to change the settings. In the region settings, select ‘India (English)’ for getting updates about the Indian stock market. The simple yet dynamic user interface makes it one of the best stock market apps for stock research.

Key Features:

  • Follow the stocks you care about most and get personalized news and alerts.
  • Access real-time stock information and investment updates to stay on top of the market.
  • Add stocks to watchlists to get real-time stock quotes and personalized news
  • Track the performance of your personal portfolio.
  • Find all the financial information you need with sleek, intuitive navigation
  • Go beyond stocks and track currencies, bonds, commodities, equities, world indices, futures, and more
  • Compare stocks with interactive full-screen charts

You can download Yahoo Finance app here!

Also read: 7 Best Mutual Fund Apps for Direct Investment

6. Market Mojo

best stock market apps market mojo

Play store rating: 4.2/5 Stars (2k Reviews)
Downloads: +100,000
Available on: Android

This is a new yet powerful app for stock market research. Market Mojo is great for the fundamental analysis of stocks. It offers pre-analyzed information on all stocks, all financials, all news, all price movement, all broker recommendations, all technicals and everything that matters in the Indian stock markets.

Key Features:

  • The Mojo Quality rank reflects the company’s long-term performance vs its peers.
  • Its Valuation determines how the stock is valued at its current price
  • The current financial trend indicates if the company is currently on a growth path and its ability to generate profits.
  • The Portfolio Analyser evaluates every hidden opportunity and risk in the portfolio and tells the investor what he should be doing rather than what he should be just tracking. Every portfolio goes through our test of seven parameters-Returns, Risk, Diversification, Liquidity, Quality, Valuation & Financial Trend

You can download Marketsmojo app here!

7. Investing.com

investing com mobile app

Play store rating: 4.6/5 Stars (355k Reviews)
Downloads: +10 Million Downloads
Available on: Android, iOS

Investing.com is a popular stock market app uses worldwide. Along with Indian stock details, you can also find the details about the world indexes and foreign stock exchanges. It offers a set of financial informational tools covering a wide variety of global and local financial instruments.

Key Features:

  • Live quotes and charts for over 100,000 financial instruments, traded on over 70 global exchanges.
  • Live updates on global economic events customized to your personal interests.
  • Build your own customized watchlist and keep track of stock quotes, commodities, indices, ETFs and bonds – all synced with your Investing.com account.
  • Breaking news, videos, updates and analysis on global financial markets, as well as technology, politics and business.
  • Quick access to all of our world-class tools, including: Economic Calendar, Earnings Calendar, Technical Summary, Currency Converter, Market Quotes, advanced charts and more.

You can download Investing.com app here!


BONUS App to Check: Best Stock Market Apps in India

1. Trade Brains -Learn to Invest

trade brains learning app Feature Page 2

Play store rating: 4.7/5 Stars (482 Reviews)
Downloads: +50,000
Available on: Android

Trade brains is a FREE financial education app focused on teaching stock market investing and personal finance to the DIY (do-it-yourself) Investors. Trade Brains app will guide you on how to invest in the Indian stock market with simple, easy-to-understand, and original content.

Key Features:

  • Pocket guide for stock market Investment.
  • LEARN- Step-by-step stock investing lessons.
  • Easy to understand contents on various investment concepts and strategies.
  • Financial Calculators to Simplify your investment planning
  • Stockbrokers section to compare the best Online Stockbrokers in India.
  • Investing quizzes to test your knowledge.

You can DOWNLOAD TradeBrains App here!

2. Trendlyne

trendlyne mobile app

Play store rating: 4.2/5 Stars (855 Reviews)
Downloads: +100,000
Available on: Android

Trendlyne is a fast-rising best stock market app in India for market analysis and research. This app offers stock data, stock screeners, alerts, stock recommendations from analysts, SWOT Analysis, portfolio and watchlist tools, and a real-time newsfeed and many other powerful features to its users. Here are a few of the key features of the Trendlyne App:

Key Features:

  • NSE and BSE market feeds, and Trendlyne’s trademark DVM Stock Scores
  • Fundamentals + Technicals – Keep track of price feeds, technicals, SMA/EMA, delivery and volume, insider trades, bulk block deals, and more.
  • SWOT Analysis for every Stock
  • Powerful Stock Screeners from Expert Strategies to Red Flags

You can download the Trendlyne App here for Android!

3. Intrinsic Value Calculator

trade brains learning app Feature Page 2

Play store rating: 4.0/5 Stars
Downloads: +10,000
Available on: Android

Want to find the undervalue valued stocks? Then, download this app!! The intrinsic value calculator App helps the users to calculate the true value of stocks by offering different IV calculators like a Discounted cashflow calculator or DCF Calculator, Return on Equity Valuation or ROE Valuation calculator, Graham number valuation or Graham Calculator, Price to Earnings valuation, PE Valuation calculator and more.

Key Calculators and Features:

  • Discounted Cashflow (DCF) Calculator: DCF analysis is a method of valuing a company using the concepts of the time value of money.
  • Fair Value Calculator: This is a simple discounted model calculator to help you find the fair value of a company using Earnings per share (EPS) forecast. With a few simple values, you can estimate the intrinsic value of a company.
  • Graham Calculator: This calculator is a good tool to find a rough estimate of the intrinsic value. It is simple and very easy to use.
  • Future Value Calculator: This is a basic compound interest calculator. It will give the future value of one time lump-sum investment.

You can DOWNLOAD IV Calculator App here!

That’s all. I hope this blog post ‘7 Best Stock Market Apps that makes Stock Research 10x Easier’ is useful to the readers. If I missed any amazing app that you believe should be mentioned here, feel free to comment below.

Further, please comment below which Stock market app is your favorite? Happy Investing!

3 Best apps Virtual Stock Trading in India (Without Risking Your Money)

3 Best Sites to Learn Virtual Stock Trading in India (Without Risking Your Money)

Best Sites to Learn Virtual Stock Trading in India (Paper trading): Entering the Indian stock market can be a tedious job for beginners. First, you need to open your brokerage account (demat and trading account). This means that you have to pay the account opening charges and go through the complex documentation process. Further, as stock market trading involves market risk, you can always lose some money— especially, you are a beginner.

So, how to solve this problem? How to Learn stock trading in India without actually risking any money. The answer is by using virtual stock trading platforms.

In this post, we are going to discuss how to use virtual stock trading platforms in India. It’s going to be an exciting post. Therefore, without wasting any time, let’s get started. Here are the topics that we’ll cover today:

1. What is Virtual Stock Trading?

A virtual stock trading (also known as paper trading) is similar to the actual trading where you can buy and sell stocks. However, here no real money is involved. You invest only in virtual money. Such platforms that provide virtual trading facilities are called stock simulators.

When you register in these stock simulators, you will get virtual money (Say Rs 10 lakhs or 1 Crore) in your account. You can use this money to practice trading.

Stock simulators provide real-time stock data, which means that you can try out different strategies of trading in stocks just like the real world stock market, but risk-free.

Also read: 7 Must Know Websites for Indian Stock Market Investors.

2. How do virtual stock trading platforms work?

It’s a really straightforward process to use a stock simulator to do the virtual stock trading. Here are the steps required to start virtual stock trading in India-

  1. Open a free account (using your email-id) on a simulating platform (discussed below).
  2. Get instant virtual money in your account.
  3. Start buying/selling stocks like real trading scenarios.
  4. Monitor your portfolio and track profit/loss.
  5. Try different strategies and learn the trading basics.
  6. When you get enough confidence and experience- move to real trading.

3. What are the pros and cons of using the virtual trading platform?

Nothing is perfect in this world. Although there are many advantages of using virtual trading platforms (especially for beginners), however, there are also a few disadvantages. Let’s discuss them- one by one:

— Advantages of using Virtual stock trading platforms

  1. No need to open a demat/trading account or go through any documentation process.
  2. No real money is required to start virtual trading.
  3. Real-time market scenarios to try out different strategies and to learn the basics.
  4. Risk-free trading practice.
  5. Okay to make mistakes and take risks as there’s no real loss here.

— Disadvantages of using virtual stock trading platforms

  1. There’s no emotional attachment as real money is not involved. 
  2. You can quickly get bored as winning/losing virtual money is not much exciting.
  3. The real market scenario might be a little different than the virtual trading environment. (In the virtual trading platforms, participants take extra risks and bets than they would actually take in a real scenario.)

Also read: 7 Best Stock Market Apps that Makes Stock Research 10x Easier.

#3 Best sites to learn virtual stock trading in India.

1. Moneybhai

moneybhai virtual stock trading website

Website — https://moneybhai.moneycontrol.com/

Moneycontrol website offers Moneybhai. It is a free virtual trading platform where you’ll get Rs 1 crore virtual cash on registration which you can use to invest in shares, commodities, mutual funds, or fixed deposits on the platform.

At Moneybhai, you can also compete with fellow Indian traders by joining different leagues. There’s also a free forum on this website where you can ask your queries or participate in the on-going discussion threads.

2. Trading View

tradingview - virtual stock trading app india

Website: https://in.tradingview.com/

TradingView is another popular virtual stock trading website/app in India. It is one of the best paper trading websites in terms of the facilities it provides like charts, technical tools are more. Users can sign up for free and connect to Paper trading to start virtual trading.

For the budding traders, who want to practice live candlestick charts or technical indicators tool to make their trades, they should definitely try out Tradingview paper trading.

3. TrakInvest

TRAK INVEST - Virtual Stock Trading in India

Website— http://www.trakinvest.com/

TrakInvest is a global trading platform that helps you to learn, develop and improve your investing skills. Currently, it provides curated market data and news from 10 exchanges. It also offers beginners’ guides and videos, certification courses designed by industry experts and simulations for competing for rewards.

At TrakInvest, you can also track other traders and dig deeper into their trading activity (portfolio) where you can replicate their trades using the ‘Copy Trade’ facility. Overall, TrakInvest provides a simple and friendly platform for ‘Social’ virtual trading for beginners.

Bonus: Other Popular Virtual Stock Trading Platforms

Bonus #1: Dalal Street

DSIJ Virtual Stock Trading in India

Website: https://www.dsij.in/Stock-Market-Challenge

Dalal Street Investment Journal (DSIJ) popular virtual stock trading platform in India which helps you to understand the different trading nuances and to test your investment strategies.

On registration, you’ll get virtual cash of Rs 1,000,0000 to create your portfolio. At DSIJ, you can also discuss strategies with like-minded participants in the discussion group.

New to stocks? Confused where to begin?  Here’s an amazing online course for beginners: ‘HOW TO PICK WINNING STOCKS?‘ This course is currently available at a discount. 

Bonus #2: Investopedia stock simulator

Website: https://www.investopedia.com/simulator/

This is my favorite stock simulator.

Investopedia provides a FREE stock simulation platform where you can easily learn how to place trade orders (like market order, limit order, stop loss, etc), how to create a portfolio, how to create a watchlist and more. On registration, you’ll get $100,000 as virtual cash which you can use to trade. You can also compete with thousands of Investopedia traders/players on the same platform.

The reason why I didn’t place this platform in the top 3 is that you cannot trade in Indian stocks on the Investopedia stock simulator. Therefore, if you’re looking to learn virtual stock trading in India, then it might not be a good option. However, if you are comfortable with trading in foreign stocks like Apple, Google, Amazon, etc, then feel free to check out this simulating platform.

Closing Thoughts on Virtual Trading

In this article, we discussed the best virtual stock trading websites in India, where you can evaluate your investing and trading skills for FREE without risking any money and with the least documentation required.

Virtual stock trading in India is an excellent way to learn the basics of trading in the stock market. Using these platforms, you can try different investment/trading strategies without any fear to lose your real money. It’s always advisable to try paper trading (virtual stock trading) for a few weeks before directly jumping into the market.

Nifty Financial Services Index - NSE to Launch Derivative Contract cover

Nifty Financial Services Index – NSE to Launch Derivative Contract!

Introduction to Nifty Financial Services Index: Good News, Good news!! A new and very exciting product has been added to the kitty of the market participants trading in the Indian trading ecosystem. We are talking about the Index “Nifty Financial Services Index”.

In today’s article of Market Forensics by Trade Brains, we’ll be discussing all about the Nifty Financial Services Index i.e what is Nifty Financial Services Index, its constituents, F&O Contract Specifications, and more. Let’s get started.

What is Nifty Financial Services Index?

NSE in its circular published on 10th Dec 2020 made the announcement that they have got permission to allow Nifty Financial services to be traded as a derivative product. From January 11, 2021, Nifty Financial Services will be allowed to trade in Futures and Options contract.

Till now the major indices that are being allowed to trade in the Indian equity market are Nifty and Bank Nifty. However, with the addition of Nifty Financial Services, there will be a total of three indexes allowed to have Futures and Options (F&O) contracts. 

Therefore, adding the ‘financial services’ as a tradeable index to the trading ecosystem provides a huge boost and impetus for traders looking for more avenues to trade. And rather than having to trade all the constituents, one can express his/her view on the same by trading Nifty Financial Services. 

Constituents of Nifty Financial Services Index

The Nifty Financial Services mainly comprises 20 stocks from various sectors like Banks, Non-Banking Financial Services, Insurance, etc. The following is the comprehensive list of all the constituents along with their weightage as on November 27, 2020. (Source: nseindia.com)

S. NoStock Name & Weightage (%)
1HDFC Bank Ltd. (27.13%)
2Housing Development Finance Corporation (17.51%)
3ICICI Bank Ltd. (14.14%)
4Kotak Mahindra Bank. (12.10%)
5Axis Bank Ltd. (6.46%)
6Bajaj Finance (5.64%)
7State Bank of India (4.06%)
8Bajaj Finserv Ltd. (2.29%)
9HDFC Life Insurance (2.21%)
10SBI Life Insurance (1.43%)
11Power Finance Corporation
12Shriram Transport Finance Company Ltd.
13REC Ltd.
14ICICI General Insurance Co. Ltd
15Cholamandalam Investment and Finance Company Limited
16Bajaj Holdings and Investment Limited
17Mahindra & Mahindra Financial Services Limited
18Piramal Enterprises Limited
19ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company Limited
20HDFC AMC

ALSO READ

How to do Intraday Trading for Beginners In India?

Criteria to be a part of Nifty Financial Services Index

Here are some of the criteria for companies to be a part of this Index:

  • NIFTY Financial Services Index is computed using the free-float market capitalization method, wherein the level of the index reflects the total free-float market value of all the stocks in the index relative to a particular base market capitalization value.
  • The company has to be a part of Nifty 500 to be able to qualify to be a part of this Index. But in case the number of eligible players falls below 10, then the companies will be selected from the Nifty top 800.
  • The company’s trading frequency should be at least 90% in the last six months.
  • The company should have a listing history of 6 months. A company, which comes out with an IPO will be eligible for inclusion in the index if it fulfills the normal eligibility criteria for the index for a 3 month period instead of a 6 month period. 
  • The weightage of each stock in the index is calculated based on its free-float market capitalization such that no single stock shall be more than 33% and the weightage of the top 3 stocks cumulatively shall not be more than 62% at the time of rebalancing.
  • Finally, the rebalancing of the companies included in this index happens semi-annually. 

Nifty Financial Services F&O Contract Specifications

Here are some of the key Nifty Financial Services Futures and Options Contract Specifications:

  • The contract size for Nifty Financial services will be 40 units.
  • There will be a total of 7 weekly expiring contracts and 3 monthly expiring contracts
  • For Option trading, there will be a total of 30 In the Money contracts,1 At the Money contract, and 30 Out of Money contracts. 
  • The strike interval will be 100 for options trading i.e., the gap between two consecutive strike prices will be 100. Say, for example, if the current At the Money Strike Price is 14300, then the immediate Out of Money strike will be 14400, and the immediate In the Money strike will be 14200. 
  • Both Futures and Options contracts will be Cash Settled.
  • The daily circuit limit for a futures contract is 10%.  

Closing Thoughts

The addition of an extra index for trading Futures and Options contracts provides an extra impetus for investors and traders willing to trade in the Indian Financial spectrum. It remains to be seen whether the contract garners sufficient interest from investors. But looking at the popularity of Bank Nifty as a derivative instrument, it is expected that the Financial services contract also attracts similar interest from investors and traders. 

That’s all for today’s Market Forensics article on long-short funds in India. We hope it was useful for you. We’ll be back tomorrow with another interesting market news and analysis. Till then, Take care and Happy investing!

New Margin Trading Rules by SEBI cover

Margin Trading: The New Tighter Rule by SEBI (Dec 2020)!

New Margin Trading Rule by SEBI (Updated): Recently, SEBI published a new circular on margins that astonished the entire trading community along with the stockbrokers. Through this circular, SEBI announced tighter margin norms for the traders. In this article, we are going to discuss what exactly is this new margin rule introduced by SEBI and how it will affect the people trading in the share market.

What is Margin trading?

In terms of the financial market, Margin would be a direct synonym for leveraging. It simply gives you the power to buy/trade in stocks that we can’t afford to buy. Through Margin trading, one is allowed to buy the stocks by just paying the part of the actual value of shares.

The margin can be paid either in terms of cash or in shares as security. The balance amount of shares are funded by the brokers. In other words, Margin simply refers to the amount of money borrowed from the broker to buy the shares of a company. The broker acts as the lender of money and the securities in the investor’s trading account, are kept as collateral.

The margin is settled later when the positions are squared off. We receive profit if we sell the shares at profit or we stand to lose the margin if we make losses.

— How to trade using Margin?

To trade using a margin account, one must have a separate margin account and not the standard brokerage account. A margin account is a separate trading account in which the broker lends money to the investor to buy a security which otherwise he will not be able to buy. The loan or the margin money which is borrowed from the broker comes at a cost i.e., the interest. Therefore, one should use a margin account for short term trading as the interest on the margin money keeps accruing.

Say, if you deposit Rs. 1,00,000 in your margin account and you have a 50% margin in your account, which means buying power of Rs. 2,00,000. Now, if you buy stocks of Rs. 70,000, you still have the buying power of Rs. 1,30,000. And we have enough cash in our margin account to cover the transaction. We start borrowing only, once we have bought shares worth Rs. 1,00,000.

— Three steps in Margin trading

  1. We need to maintain the Minimum Margin (MM) throughout the trading session because volatility in the stocks can push the prices (up or down) more than one’s anticipation.
  2. The position needs to be squared off at the end of each session. If we have bought on margin, we need to sell it off before the end of the day (EOD) and vice-versa if we have sold using margin.
  3. If we want to carry the trade onto the next session, we need to convert it to the delivery trade. And for that, we need to keep the cash ready.

If any of the above three steps are missed then the broker automatically squares off the position in the market.

New Margin Trading Rule by SEBI

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) gave out guidelines pertaining to Margin trading (which account for nearly 90% of the daily turnover of the stock market), which has not been welcomed by the brokerage firms with open arms. These rules will put an end to intraday trading and turnover generated out of it.

The brokers have been instructed to collect VaR (value at risk) and ELM (extreme loss margin) upfront from their clients. These rules will be implemented in a phased manner starting in December 2020.

  • Phase 1: From December 2020, the brokers will be penalized if the margin is more than 25% of the sum of VaR and ELM.
  • Phase 2: From March 2021 and June 21, brokers will be penalized if the margin exceeds 50% and 70% of the sum of VaR and ELM
  • Phase 3: From August 2021, brokers will be penalized if the margin exceeds VaR and ELM

Also read: What is SEBI? And What is its role in Financial Market?

Reactions from the Brokerage community

The broking community feels that this will put an end to leverage based intra-day trading. Currently, some brokers collect as low as Re. 1 for every Rs. 100 worth of trade. Here are some of the reactions from Big brokerage houses:

Nithin Kamath, CEO of Zerodha Brokerage Tweeted, “Today’s SEBI circular says that all brokerage firms have to stop intraday leverage products by August 2021 in a phased manner”. In another tweet, he added:

“While many (even we) don’t like restriction on intraday leverages by SEBI, I don’t think any regulator in the world has done so much to protect retail investors. A lot of this slows brokerage business but what is good for the client eventually is good for the business as well.”

nithin kamath on New Margin Trading Rule by SEBI

Jimeet Modi, CEO, and founder of Samco Securities said, “This was expected since last year after the December 2019 circular. Now the industry and exchanges will need to adjust to this new reality. This probably will also accelerate the market share towards discount brokers from full-service brokers. Differentiated margins was a service offering by full-service brokers which has now been arbitraged away. Our estimate is that almost 30-35 percent of the intraday turnover is based on additional leverage provided by brokers. Now assuming full margin is required, total turnover would shrink by approx 20 percent since balance part margin was still being collected from clients.”

How Market Turnover is impacted by new SEBI rule?

On July 21, SEBI gave out a circular pertaining to new rules on Margin trading. And these rules are directly going to impact the market turnover both in the cash and derivatives segment. The cash segment on NSE recorded an average daily turnover of Rs. 50,322 cr (April), Rs. 52,656 cr (May), Rs. 61,395 cr (June). And the derivatives market is nearly 18-20 times the cash market. NSE is the largest derivatives exchange in the world with an average daily turnover of more than rupees 11 lakh crore.

Some of the brokerage houses are of the view, with the new rules if VaR+ELM, the daily turnover may shrink by almost 20-30%. The clients will also have to maintain a higher margin in their account and which will also impact their return on investment. And these changes in rules will not only impact the brokers but will also impact the government, in the form of reduced Securities Transaction Tax (STT).

what are commodities and What is Commodity Trading?

What is Commodity Trading? Basics of Commodities in India!

Understanding the basics of Commodity Trading in India: Commodity trading had been around in India for hundreds of years. But as history took its course we were victims of invasions, government policies, and their amendments made commodity trading a rarity even though it was flourishing in other countries.

Today with favorable laws being implemented commodity trading is once again being accepted even in rural India. And with the strengthening of our stock markets commodity trading has regained its impotence. Today we try and understand what commodity trading is and the different means through which they can be accessed. 

what is commodity trading

What is a commodity?

Commodities in simple terms are raw materials or agricultural products that can be bought and sold. These are basic goods in commerce used as building blocks of the global economy. One very important characteristic of a commodity is that its quality may differ slightly but is essentially uniform across producers. These commodities are asset classes just like bonds and apart from being exchanged for money in real life they are also traded on dedicated exchanges throughout the world.

Classification of Commodities.

Commodities are classified into 4 broad categories. 

  • Agricultural – Corn, beans, rice, wheat, cotton, etc.
  • Energy – Crude Oil, Coal, and other fossil fuels
  • Metals – Silver, Gold, Platinum, Copper.
  • Livestock and Meat – Eggs, Pork Cattle.

Going through the examples above the characteristics of commodities being uniform becomes clearer. The market treats all goods of the same type as equals regardless of who produced them as long as they meet certain quality requirements. This characteristic is known as fungibility regardless of who mined, farmed or produced. 

Take the example of cold drinks. The demand for a Coke differs from that for Pepsi. This is because the brand too comes into play. Even if one of them loses their quality it still may be favored due to brand loyalty. Let us compare this with a commodity. Never would you have heard that “ the crude oil this year sourced from the US is bad unlike that from Saudi Arabia the previous year”. Despite them having some differentiating properties. Karl Marx describes it best:

commodity quote

What is commodity trading?

Now that we have gone through what commodities are let us have a look at how commodity trading comes into the picture.

1. Commodity trading by buyers and sellers

Commodity trading came into play as a means to protect the buyers and producers from price volatility that takes place. Take a farmer for eg. Inorder to protect himself from future price fluctuations what a farmer can do is enter into a futures contract. A futures contract is a legal agreement to buy or sell a commodity at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future. The buyer of the futures contract has the obligation to buy and receive the underlying commodity when the contract expires. The seller here takes on the obligation to provide and deliver the underlying commodity at the contract expiration date. 

This instrument is useful to farmers as he already knows the production cost of his soft commodity is going to take. Adding the required percentage of profit he can enter into the future contract with the buyer i.e. regardless of what the price in the market 6 months hence he will sell his commodity at Rs.50/kg. The buyer in this contract agrees to buy the commodity at Rs. 50/kg. regardless of the price 6 months hence. The farmer protects himself from losses of price falls but in return also forgoes the additional profit he may make from an increase in price in exchange for guaranteed cash flow.

Such future contracts are available for all categories of commodities. These contracts are also widely used in the airline sector when it comes to fuel. This is done in order to avoid market volatility of crude oil and gasoline.

2. Commodity Speculators

Another type of commodity trader is the speculator. The speculator enters the future contract but never intends to make or take delivery of the actual commodity when the futures contract expires. These investors participate in order to profit from the volatile price movements. Investors here close out their positions before the contract is due in order to avoid making or taking actual delivery of the commodity.

These investors enter into the future contracts generally to diversify their portfolio beyond traditional securities and hedge against inflation. This is because the prices of stocks generally move in the opposite direction o commodities.

In times of inflation the prices of commodities increases. This is because the demand for goods and services increases due to investors flocking to invest in commodities for protection. With the increase in demand, the price of goods and services rises as commodities are what is used to produce these goods and services, their price rises too. This makes commodities a good asset for hedging. Over the years this has also led to various assets traded in the financial markets. These include currencies and stock market indices.

Speculative Trading in Commodities for profit

It goes without saying that commodities are extremely risky because of the uncertainties associated with it. One cannot predict weather patterns, natural calamities disasters, epidemics that may occur. But then why do speculative investors still indulge in commodities if not for hedging and diversification? This is because of the huge potential for profits. Due to the high levels of leverage that exists in a future contract small price movements can result in large returns or losses.

In order to reduce this risk, most futures contracts also provide ‘options’. In the case of options, one has the right to follow through on the transaction when the contract expires. Unlike a future where you are obligated. Hence if the price does not move in the direction that you predicted you would have limited your loss to the cost of the option you have purchased. To understand better we can look at options as placing a deposit on a purchase instead of outrightly purchasing. In case things go sideways the maximum you stand to lose is your deposit.

Commodity trading in India

Commodities just like other asset classes are bought and sold on an exchange. These exchanges are called commodity exchanges and they tend to be specialized for such securities.

The commodity exchanges present in India are:

  1. Multi Commodity Exchange – MCX
  2. National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange – NCDEX
  3. National Multi Commodity Exchange – NMCE
  4. Indian Commodity Exchange – ICEX
  5. Ace Derivatives Exchange – ACE
  6. The Universal Commodity Exchange – UCX

The trading of commodities in the commodity market is regulated by SEBI and facilitated by MCX. The MCX provides a platform for trading in stocks. More than 100 commodities are traded in the Indian Commodity futures markets. Some of the top traded commodities are Gold, Crude oil, Copper cathode, Silver, Zinc, Nickel, Natural Gas, and Farm Commodities.

Also read: How to Trade Commodities in India? Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners!

Other Commodity investment options for individual investors.

Using futures and options to invest in commodities is often challenging for amateur investors. They may prove to be extremely risky for investors who do not have a background or understand how prices or commodities will likely move in the future. Hence investors can also opt for indirect exposure when it comes to commodities in the following ways.

1. Stocks

Investors interested in entering the market for a particular commodity can do so by investing in stocks related to that commodity. For eg. If one is looking to use gold in order to hedge, diversify or make a profit he can go ahead and invest in the stock of a jewelry company, mining company, or any firm that deals in bullion. The advantage that a new investor receives here is that of public information related to the company which will help him make decisions and predictions. The disadvantage that comes along with investing in commodities is that the price of the stock is not purely based on the commodity but is also influences by company-related matters.

2. ETF’s and ETN’s

Investors can make use of ETF’s and ETN’s in order to take advantage of the price fluctuations. Using futures contracts, commodity ETFs track the price of a particular commodity or group of commodities that comprise an index. The price of these indexes is tracked by these ETF’s. In order to simulate the fluctuations in price or commodity index supported by the issuer, ETN’s are dedicated. ETN’s are unsecured debts designed to mimic the price fluctuations of the commodity.

3. Mutual and Index Funds

Mutual funds at times invest directly in commodity-related industries like Energy, Food processing, metals, and mining giving exposure to the portfolio. There also exists a small number of commodity index mutual funds that invest in futures contracts and commodity-linked derivative instruments providing investors with greater exposure to commodity prices.

4. Physical investment in commodities.

Another method through which investors receive exposure to commodities is by investing directly in them i.e. by purchasing physical raw commodities. This is more common with metals as other commodities require a purchase in huge quantities to have any useful impact. We often see people buy gold in times of crisis. This may be done through the purchase of gold biscuits.

Closing Thoughts

Commodity trading provides investors with a vast number of benefits. These benefits range from the increased potential of returns, diversification, and a potential hedge against inflation.

But there also exist a number of disadvantages that mainly revolve around the volatile and speculative nature of the security. The increased opportunities in these markets come with increased risks.  

4 Best Intraday Trading Strategies for Beginners cover

4 Best Intraday Trading Strategies for Beginners!!

A Guide on Best Intraday Trading Strategies for Beginners: There are hundreds of Intraday Trading Strategies for traders apply to make money in the stock market. However, not all are simple enough for beginners to implement and make money.

In this article, we are going to cover four of the best Intraday Trading Strategies for beginners. Let’s get started.

What is Intraday Trading?

As the name would suggest, the Intraday is that event which completes within the same day. Similarly, Intraday trading is that form of trading, in which the buying and selling of the shares or assets are completed within the same trading session. Intraday trading is one of the most sought after (and one with maximum volume) form trading amongst traders in the market. With proper analysis and execution, it has the potential of generating very handsome returns.

The General MYTH with Intraday Trading

It is a general Myth among many, that Intraday trading is all about buying and selling throughout the day. And one has to be on the go, all the time. No doubt, that intraday trading requires more focus and attention than investing or delivery based trading. But the level of planning which goes about in finding the stock or move for intraday trading is second to none.

About 85-90 % of day traders’ time goes into analysis and planning of trade opportunity, and the rest 10-15% of the time goes in trade execution.

Therefore, the whole world of day trading is entirely based on proper planning and execution. It has the potential of making 20-30% returns on the investment amount, but intraday trading can never be a part-time avenue of making quick money. One has to devote a lot of time and to be a successful intraday trader, it is advised to be in front of your trading screen throughout the market trading hours.

Intraday trading Factors

Choosing the shares for intraday trading is no Rocket Science. One needs to keep certain parameters, which if met, can a share/stock be chosen for Intraday trading. Following are some of the parameters which should be given due importance while choosing stocks for intraday trading:

  • Liquidity: This is the single most important factor in choosing shares for intraday trading. Illiquid shares/assets should be avoided. Even while trading commodities for Intraday trades, liquid commodities like Gold, Silver, crude oil, etc. should be traded.
  • Volatility: As the sole purpose of Intraday trading is to earn quick returns. And for this objective to be fulfilled, the stocks need to have a broader range i.e., high beta stocks should always be preferred while doing intraday trading.
  • Volume: This tells us about the quantity of stocks that have traded within the specified time frame. The higher the volume, it generally means that there is more interest in that particular share that day. And any move which happens in the share price, with volume in the market is more trusted than the moves with low volume.
  • Consistency: It is a general rule while doing intraday trading that one should be consistent in his/her approach while doing trading. One should not let emotions take over while doing intraday trading. The decisions should be based on logic, maths, and price action.
  • Patience: This is very important is all forms of trading, let alone intraday trading. One should not expect wonder trades (i.e., the hope of making all the money in one trade). One needs to bide his time and grind it out if one expects to have a long and fruitful trading career.

Intraday Trading Strategies for Beginners

Now, having understood the basics of Intraday trading the various facets which should be kept in while choosing the shares to intraday trade. One thing which should always be kept in mind that these strategies do not guarantee to make money. Let us try and understand a few intraday trading strategies:

Intraday Trading Strategy 1: Momentum Strategy

As the name suggests, the whole premise of this strategy is to catch the momentum in the market. It is imperative to track these stocks before the actual momentum starts in the market. If spotted at the right time, these stocks have the potential of generating returns of 20-30% within one session.

These movements could be because of Fundamental (Overnight news, Quarterly earnings, some big order procurement, new projects, etc.) and Technical (breakout) factors.

Intraday trading strategy 1 - Momentum Strategy

Img 1: 15 mins Chart of ESCORTS (source: www.zerodha.com)

Now, if you look at the picture above, the market opened near the previous day high, but the momentum soon fizzled out and we saw selling pressure coming in the market. And we saw a series of lower highs and lower lows in the market. And it ended the day near the lows of the day. So, this is a classic case of momentum intraday trade in the market.

Intraday Trading Strategy 2: Breakout Strategy

As the name would suggest, this strategy focuses on finding the trade which is going to trade in a new territory or has broken out of its usual territory. One thing should be kept in mind that the breakout has happened with volume (thin volume breakouts generally tend to be false breakouts).

If the breakout is on the upside, then we go long and if the breakout is on the downside, then we go short. One should always mark the supports and resistances, so as to have right stop losses for the breakout trades.

Intraday trading strategy 2 - Breakout Strategy

Image 2: 15 Mins chart of Maruti (source: www.zerodha.com)

Now, if you carefully look at the image above, we see a classical breakout trade. These trades when spotted, have the potential of generating significant returns. The Stop loss for this kind of trades is always the low of the range prior to the breakout.

Intraday Trading Strategy 3: Scalping Strategy

This strategy is the most beneficial strategy for a day trader. The whole idea to constantly keep scalping in the market for small profits. This strategy is a very common method of trading while trading commodities. This kind of trading is generally done by high-frequency traders in the market. The overall technical and fundamental setup does not have a major bearing on this trade. Price action plays a very important role while selecting the trade for scalping.

The stocks or commodities chosen for purpose of scalping should be liquid and volatile. And one important thing to always keep in mind is to have a stop loss for every trade. One should not let the position drift away. The scalping strategy is best suited when the market is stuck in a tight range. Liquidity and tighter range are two friends of scalpers.

Intraday Trading Strategy 3: Scalping Strategy

Img 3: 15 Mins chart of TCS (source: www.zerodha.com)

If we look at the image above, the market is stuck in a tight range and it provides a great opportunity for scalpers.

Intraday Trading Strategy 4: Moving Average Strategy

This Strategy can also be called as the moving average crossover strategy. This is generally a trend reversal strategy in the market.

When the price of the underlying asset goes above or below the moving average, it generally signals a change of momentum in the market. When the crossover happens from bottom to top, it is called Bullish crossover and when the crossover happens from top to bottom, it is called a Bearish crossover.

Intraday Trading Strategy 4: Moving Average Strategy

Image 4: 30 Mins chart of ICICI Bank (source: www.zerodha.com)

The image above is a 30 minutes chart of ICICI Bank. We see an obvious weakness in the market when its price is trading below the two moving averages (13 EMA and 34 EMA). And when the market starts trading over the moving average, the dips are being bought back in the market.

Therefore, when the market is trading over MA, it is advised to go long and when the market is trading below MA, it is recommended to initiate a sell position. For a long position, the stop loss is below the Moving Averages (MA) and for a short position, the stop loss is above the MA’s.

Also read: How to do Intraday Trading for Beginners In India?

Conclusion

In this article, we covered the four best Intraday Trading Strategies for beginners. Here are a few key takeaways from this post:

  • Intraday trades are those trades for which the activity of buying and selling is completed within the same day.
  • About 90% of the time in intraday Trading goes for planning and the remaining 10% goes in execution.
  • Liquidity, Volatility, Volume, Patience, and Consistency are the key ingredients of Intraday trading.
  • One has to devote complete time and dedication if one wants to be a successful intraday trader.
  • Traders need to always have good Risk management. Always place stop loss for all orders while taking intraday trades.

That’s all for this post on Intraday Trading Strategies for beginners. I hope it was useful for you. Happy Trading and Money Making.

How to Trade Commodities in India? Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners!

How to Trade Commodities in India? Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners!

A Beginner’s Guide on How to Trade Commodities in India: In olden times, commodities like grains, cotton, oil, cattle, etc were heavily traded among the people and communities to meet their requirements. You might have seen movies of people carrying goods on the top of Camels to trade with others. Not much has still changed even in the 21st century. Even now, people and countries trade these items. And these days, anyone can trade in commodities to make substantial profits, apart from trading in traditional stocks and other derivatives instruments.

In this article, we are going to discuss the step-by-step process of how to trade commodities in India. Here, we’ll first cover the basics like what is a commodity, who are commodity buyers and sellers, the types of commodities traded in India, etc. Later, we’ll get into the technicalities like margin required and how exactly to trade in commodities in India. Let’s get started.

What is a Commodity?

In simplest words, a commodity is any raw material that has a physical form and which can be bought or sold and are interchangeable in nature with another similar commodity.  Some of the traditional examples of commodities include Grains, Wheat, corn, soybeans, or other foodstuffs, Cattle or other stock animals, Cotton, oil, gold, etc.

Investing/trading in commodities is a good way to diversify your portfolio with assets other than stocks, gold, etc. Investors or Traders can buy commodity directly in the spot (cash) market or via derivatives market by trading in Futures and Options.

Types of Commodity traders

There are generally two types of commodity traders – Hedgers and Speculators.

— Hedgers are buyers or producers of commodities that use commodities futures contracts for hedging purposes. These traders take the delivery position of the original commodity when the futures contract expires.

— The second types of trader are the Speculators who enter the market for the sole purpose of profiting from the price movement or volatility of commodity futures contract.

Commodity trading exchanges in India

In India, the commodities are traded via five exchanges. Traders are allowed to trade commodity derivative contracts from any of the following exchanges:

  • National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE)
  • Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)
  • Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX)
  • National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX)
  • Indian Commodity Exchange Limited (ICX).

An interesting point to mention here is is that NSE and BSE launched trading in commodities only in 2018. Further, the commodities market is regulated by SEBI. (Earlier it was regulated by Forwards Markets Commission (FMC), which was later merged with the SEBI in 2015). All the commodities in India are traded via the online portals.

Margin required to trade Commodity in India

Commodities are products that require higher-margin, compared to any other product like equity futures or options. Different products under the preview of a commodity require a different amount of margins.

Here is a list of the most actively traded commodity along with the margin required for Normal (or delivery) mode and MIS (Margin Intraday Square off) mode.

Margin required to trade Commodity in India Margin required to trade Commodity in India

Pic: Intraday and Normal margin for various commodities (source: www.zerodha.com)

If we were to carefully look at the picture above, for different commodities the margin varies with the change in the price of the commodity futures contract. The images above clearly give information about the Normal margin, the Intraday margin, and the price levels for which the margins are calculated.

List of commodities traded in India

The commodity sector in India has been divided into five sectors namely – Agriculture, Metals and Materials, Precious metals and materials, Energy and, Services. These sectors are again classified and divided into various constituents.

(Image: List of various commodity sectors and its constituents (source: www.indiainfoline.com))

Tips before Entering the Commodity Trading

Here are a few factors to be kept in mind before deciding to enter the commodity trading:

  • Commodity trading is one the fastest growing product, for trading in India.
  • Although risky by nature, but if done with careful analysis and complete understanding, commodity trading adds the required pinch of diversification to the portfolio.
  • The margin required to trade commodities is slightly on the higher side.
  • The amount of margin required to trade the commodity keeps on changing depending upon changes in the price of futures contact of those commodities.

How to Trade Commodities in India? Step-by-Step Explanation

By now, you would have understood what commodity trading is, its various nuances, the margin requirements, the various players in commodity trading, and the different products. Let us now try and understand as to how does one start commodity trading in India.

For the sake of explanation, we have used Zerodha’s web (as they are the discount brokers with the highest customer base), to explain the steps.

Step 1: You need to have a trading account with one of the brokers that allow commodity trading (for example, Zerodha, Angel broking, 5Paisa, etc.). If you don’t have one, here’s an article on the best discount brokers in India, so that you can pick the one that suits you the best.

After opening the trading account, a separate form has to be filled, which activates the commodity trading along with equity trading in the same account. The margin account for equity trading and Commodity trading is different. The margin of Equity cannot be used for Commodity trading and vice-versa.

Step 2: We need to have a sufficient margin balance in our commodity trading account. Margin is the minimum amount of money required to trade. The amount of margin required varies from a Normal trade to a MIS (Margin Intraday Square off) trade.

The main difference between these two is that in case of Normal trade, the position can be carried over to the next day. However, in case of a MIS trade, the position will automatically get squared off before the end of the day.

The amount of margin required is the least for the Covered order. The covered order is that order for which the stop loss is pre-decided. And, hence the margin is least.

oil trading zerodha futures margin

Now, if we carefully look at all the images above, the first image shows the amount margin required for Crude oil October futures contract in Intraday MIS mode (Margin = Rs. 2,00,410). The second image shows the margin required when we trade NRML (Normal) contract (Margin = Rs. 4,00,882). And the third image shows the amount of margin required for a covered order (Margin = Rs. 88,026).

Step 3: The next important step that we need to consider, is to select the commodities, which we wish to trade. And upon selecting the commodities, it is advised to have all the commodities for various expiries pinned to the watch list.

Watch list of the commodities - How to Trade Commodities in India(Image: Watch list of the commodities (source: www.zerodha.com))

Step 4: After Shortlisting the commodities to be traded, the next step is to place the order. After selecting the contract, we just need to punch in the trade on the ticket.

Now, we have two ways to take the trade – Limit order & Market order. If we place the market then we end up buying or selling at the existing market price. But if we place a limit order then we can choose the price at which we want to place the order.

limit and market order commodity trading

Step 5: The next step while trading options is to check in the order book if the order has been placed.  We can do that by simply clicking on the orders tab, and we can see the list of all the order which have been placed or canceled or executed.

Step 6: The last, but the most important step is the continuous monitoring of the positions. We should always be on the constant lookout for opportunities to trade and always have a stop loss for the existing trade.

Conclusion

In this article, we discussed the step-by-step procedure on how to trade Commodities in India. Here are a few key takeaways from this post:

  • Commodity trading is done by both hedgers and speculators.
  • It is one of the most common form of portfolio diversification method used by investors or traders.
  • The amount of margin required to trade is slightly on the higher side, so the trades must be entered after doing a careful analysis of the technical and fundamental picture.
  • We can do both Intraday (MIS) trading and NRML (delivery based trading) while trading commodities.
  • It is always advised to have proper risk management (stop loss and target) for all the trades

That’s all for this post on how to trade Commodities in India for beginners. I hope it was useful to you. If you still have any queries to related to this topic, feel free to comment below. I’ll be happy to help. Happy Trading and Money Making!!

How to do Intraday Trading for Beginners In India cover

How to do Intraday Trading for Beginners In India?

A Definite Guide to starting Intraday Trading for Beginners in India: If you want to make a livelihood from the stock market, the most popular approach is day trading or Intraday trading. Unlike investing, where you have to wait months and years to book the profits, here gains can be made within hours and sometimes even within minutes. Moreover, with the advancement of the internet and technology, day trading can be learned and started even from your phone and that too comfortably sitting on your sofa at home.

In this article, we’ll cover the step-by-step procedure to start Intraday trading for beginners in India. Here, we’ll also discuss what is intraday trading, who are intraday traders, thumb rules for day trading, and more. Let’s get started.

What is Intraday Trading?

As the name would suggest, Intraday trading is a type of trading where both the buying and selling activity in a stock (or an asset) is completed the same day i.e. in the same trading session.

Here, the trading is not done with the objective of holding or carrying a position over the next day or weeks. The main objective while intraday trading is to earn quick profits and exit your position as soon as possible. Further, the holding time for assets can vary between a few minutes to some hours.

In addition, generally, Intraday trading is done for high beta stocks i.e., the stocks that have high fluctuations in their prices on day to day basis. If the prices do not move at all in the entire day, there won’t be any opportunity for the intraday traders to make money from that stock.

— Who are Intraday Traders?

There is a proven theory on the market- “The more time you spend in the market, the more rewarding it is”. Intraday trading is generally done by traders who are very active participants in the market i.e., they have an eye on the market in every passing second.

One thing which one must keep in mind while doing intraday trading is that one should not become too greedy while taking intraday trades. If we have strict profit targets and stop-loss levels, then it goes a long way in selecting the right trades for intraday trading. Stop-loss is an advance order to sell the shares if the share price reaches a particular price point. Therefore, it helps to automate the selling process in different market scenarios.

For example, suppose I am doing intraday trading for shares of Reliance Industries Limited (RIL). The current price per share is Rs. 2200. Therefore, if I buy one share at CMP and have a target price of 2225 and stop-loss at 2185, then by rule we should stick to those levels and not increase our profit targets or trail our stop losses, as the market starts to move.

— Some Thumb Rules in Intraday Trading for Beginners

Here are some of the best rules that beginners must follow while doing Intraday trading to maximize profits and limit the losses:

  • Always chose liquid stocks for intraday trading that can easily be entered or exited.
  • Have entry and exit points in mind before entering the trade.
  • Always have a stop loss for trades, as the position might drift away and huge losses might be incurred.
  • It’s important to have a trading mentality and not the mentality of the investor while doing Intraday trading.
  • One should be willing to take multiple trades in the same companies or indices as the market might provide multiple trading opportunities.
  • Always take trades in the direction of the market. Remember “Trend is your friend.”
  • Mean reversion trades are generally not a good strategy for intraday trading.

— What products can be traded intraday?

You can do intraday trading in almost all stocks that are trading in the stock exchanges. You can also trade in Indices.

Further, Intraday trading is done not only in the cash segment but even in the derivatives segment (Futures and Options). Derivate segments are big contributors to the intraday trading market. And the margin required to trade Intraday futures contract is comparatively lesser than that of delivery contracts.

margin for different trades intraday tradingIf we look at the images above, then we see that in the window with the order type selected as MIS Intraday, the amount of margin required is 1/5th of the amount of margin required to trade in overnight (NRML) mode.

How to do Intraday Trading for Beginners In India?

Having understood the basic premise of Intraday trading and its elementary characteristics, the next important point of consideration is how does one go about doing intraday trading in India. Following is a step by step procedure which should explain the complete procedure. For the sake of explanation, we have used Zerodha’s kite trading platform to explain the steps as they are the discount brokers with the highest customer base.

Step 1: You need to have a trading account with one of the brokers (For example, Zerodha, Angel broking, 5Paisa, etc.). If you don’t have one, here’s an article on the best discount brokers in India, so that you can pick the one that suits you the best. Anyways, the steps required for Intrady trading are almost the same for any othe broker that you choose.

Step 2: You need to have a sufficient margin balance in your trading account. Margin is the minimum amount of money required to trade. The amount of margin required varies from a regular trade to a MIS (Margin Intraday Square off). The main difference between these two is that, in case of regular trade, the position can be carried over to the next day but in case of a MIS trade, the position will automatically get squared off before the end of the day.

The Margin allowed to trade for MIS trades varies anywhere between 4x to 20x depending on the nature of the stock and its expected volatility. Therefore, Margin trading gives us the power of leveraging.

margins in intraday trading

Step 3: The next important step which we need to consider is to select the share/asset we wish to intraday trade for that particular day and add those shares to one separate watch list. This step is of prime importance because it is practically not possible to keep an eye on all the shares listed on NSE and BSE.

However, having a watch list of the selected stocks gives us an opportunity to moderate and buy the stocks and take maximum advantage of all the intra-day trading opportunities.

intraday trading for beginners

Therefore, if we carefully look at the image above, it can be seen that it becomes very easy to keep a watch on the selected shares if we make a separate watch list of all the shares that we wish to intraday trade.

Step 4: The next step in this process is to select the share in which you wish to trade. And after selecting the share, we just need to punch in the trade on the ticket.

Now, we have two ways to take the trade – Limit order & Market order. If we place the market then we end up buying or selling at the existing market price. On the other hand, if we place a limit order then we can choose the price at which we want to place the order.

And the next thing to choose is the kind of order i.e., either normal order or MIS order. If we choose the limit order, then the margin required is exactly the same as the current value of the stock. But if we choose MIS order, then the margin required to trade varies anything between 5% to 20% of the current stock price.

Intraday trading for beginners

Now, if we carefully look at the image above, we see that in the window we have chosen the MIS Intraday option and hence the margin required to trade 7 shares of Marico is comparatively lesser than the actual trading price of one share.

Step 5: The next step while trading options is to check in the order book if the order has been placed.  We can do that by simply clicking on the orders tab and we can see the list of all the order which have been placed or canceled or executed.

Step 6: The last, but the most important step in Intraday trading is the continuous monitoring of the positions. We should always be on the constant lookout for opportunities to trade and always have a stop loss for the existing trade. If we follow these rules, then we always have a better chance of having a successful and rewarding trading career.

Also read: 4 Best Intraday Trading Strategies for Beginners!!

Closing Thoughts

In this article, we discussed the exact steps to start Intraday Trading for Beginners in India. To conclude, here are a few takeaways from this post.

  1. Intraday trading has been on a rise in India. And with the growing education about trading and investing, this trend is likely to grow at a faster pace in the future.
  2. While trading Intraday, buying and selling of the stocks should be completed within the same day.
  3. Intraday trading could be done for both cash stocks and in the derivatives market also.
  4. It is always advised to have proper risk management (stop loss and target) for all the trades
  5. And for a long and rewarding career, it is always advised to have a proper trading rules and discipline.

That’s all for this post on how to do Intraday trading for beginners. If you still have any queries related to this article, feel free to comment below. I’ll be happy to help. Take care and happy trading.

how to trade options in India 2020

How to Trade Options In India? Step-by-Step Guide!

A Beginner’s Guide on How to Trade Options in India: Options Trading has been quite popular in India in recent days. Because of the pandemic situation, a lot of new and existing traders have been able to understand and learn this new craft of trading (Options Trading).

Nonetheless, as the skills and steps required to trade Options is not taught in schools or academics, most beginners find it difficult to learn how to trade options in India. Therefore today, we are going to explain the step by step process on how to trade options in India in the easiest possible words. Let’s get started.

Brief Overview of Options Trading

The most common concept that most of you must have heard about trading via options is the power to leverage.

Leveraging in terms of Options trading would simply mean, the power to trade at higher capacity then what the direct value of trade would allow. Let us understand this with the help of a simple scenario from day-to-day life.

Say, Ram has a wedding in his house two months down the line and for the purpose of the wedding, he needs to get 100 grams of Gold. The current price of 10gms of Gold is Rs. 50,000. However, Ram is a little skeptical about the volatility in the market and wants to lock in the current price of Gold, to be bought two months down the line. Therefore, with the objective of freezing the price of gold, he visits the jewelry shop and puts forward his proposition of buying the gold at the current price, two months down the line.

Why are Gold prices skyrocketing? Is it a good time to buy?

But looking at the current volatility, the jewelry shop owner is a little skeptical of taking the risk of fixing the price of Gold. Therefore, to incentivize the Jewelry shop, Ram pays him certain token money (say, Rs. 2000 per 10 gm of Gold) to fix the price of Gold. Therefore, the total money paid by Ram to enter the agreement with the jewelry shop owner is Rs. 20,000.

Let’s suppose, if upon expiry (i.e. after two months) if the price of gold goes above Rs 50,000 (per 10 gm), then Ram will exercise his right to buy the gold at Rs. 50,000. However, if the price of gold after two months remains unchanged or goes down, then Ram is not obligated to honor the agreement. He merely stands to lose the token money (Rs. 20000), which he paid to enter into the agreement. And that becomes the income of the Jewelry shop owner.

For example, if the price of Gold were to increase to Rs. 57,000 for 10 grams, then the overall benefit of Ram will be –

= Total gold * (Price after two months – Current price – Premium paid) = 10*10*(57,000-50,000-2,000) = Rs. 50,000.

Now, if I were to relate this example to options, then the Ram is the Option buyer, the Jewelry shop owner is the option seller, Gold is the underlying asset, the current price of gold is the Strike price and token money paid is the option premium.

A similar scenario is also applicable to the stock market. Here, if the option buyer believes that the price of a share may go higher in the future (through his analysis or study), he/she may pay a premium to the options seller to enter in a contract to buy the stocks at the pre-decided value. Further, the premium paid might be an expense, however, if the share price goes way above the pre-decided agreement price, then the option buyer will make profits.

Basic Options Trading Definition

To define in financial terms, Options are a derivative instrument that gives the right to option buyer to buy the underlying asset at a pre-decided price from the option seller, on or before expiry.

However, the option buyer is not obligated to honor the contract upon expiry. He has the right to buy the asset if he chooses to. However, if he does not wants to buy (in case the current price goes below the pre-decided value), he will simply lose the premium paid beforehand.

Nevertheless, the Option seller is obligated to honor the contract as he/she has taken a premium at the starting of the agreement. And the option seller is compensated in the form of this fee (or premium) to give up his right on underlying assets till the expiry of the contract.

Also read: Options Trading 101: The Big Cat of Trading World!

How to Trade Options In India?

Now that you have understood the basics of Options Trading, we’ll be covering how to trade options in India next.  For the sake of reference and explanation, I will be using the trading portal of Zerodha (Kite) in this article, as it is the most commonly used trading platform in India. Following are the step by step procedure to trade options in India.

Step 1: You need to have a trading account with one of the brokers (For example, Zerodha, Angel broking, 5Paisa, etc.). If you don’t have one, here’s an article on the best discount brokers in India so that you can pick the one that suits you the best. The steps to trade options in India are almost same in any trading platform you chose.

Step 2: We need to have a margin in our trading to be able to trade options. Based on the position taken by the investor, the margin requirement varies. Option buyer needs margin to pay for the premium required to trade options. And option seller needs margin as they have to keep certain money with brokers to account for Marked to Market (M2M).

Step 3: Next, we need to understand as to what is our view on the underlying asset. If we have a bullish view, then we can buy a call option (or sell put option) and if we have a bearish view, then we can express the same by either buying a put option (or selling a call option).

“Buying a Call option gives us the right to buy the underlying asset on or before expiry. And Buying a Put option gives us the right to sell the underlying asset on or before expiry”

Step 4: Select the underlying asset you chose to trade and also select the various strike prices that we choose to trade upon. For example, here’s a screenshot from Zerodha Kite where you can choose the asset and strike price.

zerodha kite astrike price

Now, say we are looking to trade Nifty 50 Contract via Option and we have a bullish stance on the market. Therefore, we could trade In the Money Call Option (Nifty 11450 CE), At the Money Call Option (Nifty 11500 CE) or Out of Money Call Option.

An In the Money Option is one that would make money if we were to exercise it right now at current spot levels. An Out of Money option is one that would be worthless if we were to expire it right now and an At the Money option is one that is the closest strike price to the current spot price levels.

It is advised to not to go too out of money while buying an option as the chances of them expiring in the money by expiry, is very less and more often than not, they expire worthlessly.

Step 5: Let’s say, we decide to go ahead and buy an At the Money option. Then, the next step in this process is to place an order to buy the option. We can choose to buy the option at the existing price and we can also choose to place the order at a specified price by placing a limit order.

options trading in zerodha kite

Therefore, if you look at the ticket in the image above, we have two options to buy the contract from i.e. Market or Limit.

If we choose the option of market order then the order is executed at the current market price. And if we choose Limit order, then we can choose the price at which we want to buy the contact. In the image above, the current rice of the contract 11500 call option is 90.65, but the price at which we want to buy the contract is 80.

The total number of shares in one contract of nifty is 75. If the option premium is 60, then the total amount of premium required to buy the contract will be = 75*60 = 4500. And this information is directly available on the ticket shown above.

Step 6: The next step while trading options is to check in the order book if the order has been placed.  We can do that by simply clicking on the orders tab and we can see the list of all the order which have been placed or canceled or executed.

Step 7: The last but the most important step while trading options is to monitor the existing position in the market. It is always advised to have a stop loss for every trade as it will help us in having good risk management and also prolong one’s trading career.

That’s all. This is how you trade options in India. If you still have any doubts, I will strongly recommend you to also watch the below video on how to trade options using Zerodha kite Demo. This video will help you even more to learn the steps for Options trading in India. Watch it Now!!

Closing Thoughts

In this article, we discussed how to trade options in India through a step-by-step guide. Here are the key takeaways from this article:

  • Options are derivative products that derive their value form the value of the underlying asset.
  • Call options give us the right to buy the underlying asset upon expiry. On the other hand, Put options give us the right to sell the underlying asset upon expiry
  • Bullish views can be expressed by either buying a call option or selling a put option.
  • Bearish views can be expressed by wither buying a put option or selling a call option.
  • One can use the Zerodha platform to trade option as it is very user friendly and there is rarely any delay in the order execution.

If you still have any doubts on how to trade options in India, feel free to comment below. I’ll be happy to answer all your queries. Have a great day and happy trading!

What is Open Interest(OI)? How to interpret it in Options Trading?

What is Open Interest (OI)? How to interpret it?

Understanding Open Interest: The term open interest (OI) is one of the most popular terminologies used among stock market traders. In this article, we are going to discuss what exactly is Open Interest. Here, we’ll discuss it’s definition, what does an increase or decrease in open interest implies, the difference between open interest vs volumes, and how one should interpret open interest. Let’s get started.

Open Interest Definition

Open Interest is the total number of the futures contracts (or Options) held by market participants at any given point of time. The total number of open interest contracts keeps on changing with every transaction executed. The open interest is said to be the best indicator to gauge the market sentiment and understand the reliability of the price movements.

Therefore, for an open interest to exist, there must be a buyer for every seller and vise-versa. Here, the relationship between buyer and seller creates one open interest. So, when buyers and sellers come together and initiate one new position, then open interest is increased by one unit. And when the same buyer and seller decrease their position, an open interest is reduced. But, if a buyer and seller passes their position to a new buyer and seller, then the Open interest remains unchanged, its just a transfer of position.

What does the Increase/Decrease in Open Interest Imply?

An increase in Open Interest means that new money is flowing in the market. And it generally indicates that the present trend (Bullish, Bearish, or sideways) is expected to continue.

A decline is an open interest usually implies, that the current trend is expected to halt and we could see a reversal in the market. To know the current open Interest, we just need to know the total from the buyer or seller side and not both.

Difference between Open Interest (OI) and Volumes

There is generally a common misconception that both OI and volumes mean one and the same thing. However, they are two different concepts, giving out two different sets of data. But, both the data can be used in conjuncture. Let us understand the concept of Open Interest with the help of an example.

Say, there are five traders (A, B, C, D, E) trading the Nifty futures contract. Let us understand, as to how their trading has an impact on the open interest and its calculation.

On Monday: ‘A’ buys 20 Nifty futures contract and ‘B’ also buys 10 Nifty futures contract. While ‘C’ sells 30 Nifty futures contract in the market. Therefore, we have a buying activity of 30 futures contracts and a selling activity of 30 futures contracts. Hence, the total Open Interest is 30.

TraderBuy (L = Long)Sell (S = Short)Contract held
A2020L
B1010L
C3030S
D
E
Total30

On Tuesday: C wants to get rid of half the position and ‘D’ comes into the market and takes 15 short contacts from C. Here just the mere transfer of position happened and no new contracts were added. So, the open Interest will still stand at 30.

TraderBuy (L = Long)Sell (S = Short)Contract held
A
B
C1515L
D1515S
E
Total30

On Wednesday: D wants to add 15 more short contracts. And both A & B want to add 5 long contracts each, to their existing long positions. And C wants to exit 5 more short contract position form here existing position of 15 short contracts. Therefore, 10 more long contracts (both A & B) are added in the market. And the contract between C and D would be just a mere transfer of positions. In short, the table on Wednesday would look like this:

TraderBuy (L = Long)Sell (S = Short)Contract held
A55L
B55L
C55L
D1515S
E
Total30

On Thursday: Trader E decides to enter the market. And wants to sell 50 Nifty futures contracts. Therefore, trader D decides to exit his 30 lots position and transfers his position to E. While trader A & B add position so 10 lots each to their existing positions. Overall, 20 new lots get added to the system and the final table at the end of Thursday looks like:

TraderLSContractsLSContractsLSContractsLSContracts
A2020L20L525L1035L
B1010L10L515L1025L
C3030S1515S510S10S
D1515S1530S300
E5050S

If we carefully analyze and look at the table above, it gives us a fair sense that open interest is eventually a zero-sum game. If we add all the longs and subtract them with all the shorts in the market. The end result is eventually zero.

open interest data money controlFigure 1: Open Interest data (Moneycontrol.com)

Now, if we look at the snapshot above (Fig 1), it is the data showing the shares with the highest change in the open interest for the day. With the change in the open interest, the share price has also gone up and which is usually an indication that the buying momentum is expected to continue in these ten shares.

— Open Interest and Volume interpretation

From the discussion above it is clear that OI tells us information about the contract which are open and live in the market. But, the volume gives us information about the number of trades executed in the market.

The volume data is reset at the end of the day and the new counter starts at the beginning of the next day, but the data of the OI is a continuation from the previous day. 10 lots bought and 10 lots amount to 10 volume and 10 OI for the day.

— Interpreting Open Interest

PriceOpen Interest (OI)Expectation from market
IncreaseIncreaseThe buying momentum is most likely expected to continue
DecreaseDecreaseLong unwinding can be seen i.e., buyers are exiting from the market
IncreaseDecreaseShort covering can be seen in the market.
DecreaseIncreaseWe could be a reversal in buying momentum as we can see more shorts than longs in the Market.

Conclusion

In this article, we tried to simplify the concept of open interest in share market and what it interprets. Here are a few of the top takeaways from this post:

  • Open interest gives you information about the total number of contracts which are outstanding in the market.
  • It is an excellent indicator to understand the market sentiment and expected momentum in the market.
  • When the contract switches hands, it’s just a transfer of positions and Open interest does not change.
  • The data of volume refreshes every day but Open Interest is a continuous data.

That’s all for this post. I hope it was useful for you. If you still have any queries related to open interest in the share market, please comment below. I’ll be glad to help you out. Happy trading.

What Are Futures Contract meaning

What Are Futures Contract? And How are they traded in India?

Understanding Futures Contract and their importance: The Futures and Forward Contracts are a financial instrument that derives their value from the value of the underlying asset. Basically, the futures contract are contracts between buyers and sellers, where the buyer agrees to buy a fixed number of shares from the sellers, at a specified time in the future and at a pre-determined price. The futures contract derive their value directly from the value of the underlying asset. Moreover, they are one of the highest traded derivative instruments in the world.

In this article, we are going to discuss futures contract in detail including the importance of these contracts and how to trade in futures contract in India. Let’s get started.

Difference between Futures contract and Forward contract

There are two major points of difference between Futures and Forward contract. Firstly, futures are a legally binding contract to buy or sell the underlying asset or a specific date. Secondly, the futures contract are done via Futures exchange i.e., they are regulated.

A standardized contract specifies the time, quantity, value, quality, time, and location of the underlying asset. The product can be a commodity, currency, stocks, index, etc. The standardization of contract sets the same rules, specification of contract for all the participants. And because of the standardization, the ownership of the contract can be passed to any other trade by way of a trade.

As the Futures contracts are exchange-traded, it guarantees the parties involved that the contract will be honored. All the futures contracts are centrally cleared via exchanges thus eliminating the counterpart risk.

How are Futures contract traded in India?

In India, the futures contract are mainly traded in two forms – Stock Futures and the Index Futures.

— Index Futures

The index is the grouping of stocks. It simply measures the change in the prices of group stocks over time. Say, for instance, Bank Nifty represents the top 12 banks in the Indian Banking system. These banks are from both the public and private sectors. And any movement in the share price of these banks directly impacts the index. Future contracts are also available for these indexes. They directly derive their value from the value of the index. The following are some of the characteristics or traits of these indexes:

  • Size of the contract: Each and every contract in the futures contract have a specified fixed size. Anyone willing to trade will have to buy the full contract or multiples of it. Say, for instance, if I am trading Nifty 50 Index, then each lot has 75 shares in it. And in the Bank Nifty, each future lot has 25 shares in it. These are the two most actively traded Index futures in the Indian equity market.
  • Expiry: Each and every index futures have a specified date of expiry. All the Index futures are settled on the last trading Thursday of the month. If the last Thursday is a holiday, then the expiry happens on the previous working day. Since the index are the culmination of various stocks, hence there is no physical delivery of the shares on the index. Only the cash differential is to be paid.
  • Time frame: The Index futures have three contracts running simultaneously all the time i.e., the near month (1-month), the middle month (2-month), and the far month (3-month). As and when the near month contract expires, a new far month contract is added to the series.
  • Margin Required: The margin required to trade the futures contract is comparatively high, as the position are exposed to market to market (M2M) risk and the brokers and exchanges will have to safeguard their interest in case the index becomes very volatile on a particular day.

— Stock Futures

The basic premise of trading stock futures is very similar to Index futures. Stock futures are the derivative instruments, that derives their value from the value of the underlying security/stock. The contracts have a specific size, fixed price, and specified date. Once the contract is entered, it will have to be honored. Following are some of the characteristics of Stock futures:

  • The size of the contract: All the stocks trading in the futures market, have a different number of shares in each lot. We can’t trade just one share to trade futures. A minimum of one lot has to be traded. For example, one lot of futures contract of Reliance industries has 505 shares, one lot of Maruti has 100 shares, one lot of ICICI bank has 1375 shares etc.
  • Expiry: All the stock futures contract have a fixed maturity. They expire on the last trading Thursday of the month. And if the last Thursday is a holiday, then they expire on the previous trading day. The stocks have three expiring contracts – near month (1-month), middle month (2-month), and far month (3-month).
  • Margin: The margin required to trade stock futures contract is very high to cover for Mark to Market (M2M) losses. This is basically done to protect the interest brokers and the exchange.

How Are Futures contract Priced?

Futures contract derive their value from the value of the underlying assets. There is always a variation/difference in the prices of the cash segment and derivatives segment. There are basically two methods of pricing the futures contract: The Cost of Carry Method & The Expectancy Method.

— The Cost Of Carry Model

Under this method, the market is assumed to be perfectly efficient. There is no difference in the value of cash market and futures contract. So, the profit made by trading the cash segment or futures segment is same, as the movement in the prices are aligned. Following is the process of calculating the prices under the Cost of Carry model

Futures Price = Cash Price + Cost of Carry

The cost of carry here refers to the cost of holding the futures contract till maturity.

— The Expectancy Method

Under this method, the futures prices are the expected cash price of the underlying asset in the Future. So, if the market is positive/conducive for the underlying asset, then the futures price will be higher than the cash price. And if the market has a weak sentiment towards the underlying asset, then the futures price will be lower than the underlying asset.

Advantages of Trading Futures contract

Here are a few of the major advantages while trading in the futures contract:

  • Futures contract are one of the safest mode to hedge one’s exiting position in the market i.e., if I am long in shares of a particular company, I can hedge my position by taking short in futures contract of the same underlying Asset
  • The futures contract are high leverage instruments i.e., to trade futures contract we have to pay only a fraction of the total value. In general, the margin amount is just 10% if total value. This margin money acts as a collateral, in case the value of the underlying asset goes opposite to the views of the investor and he incurs losses. Say, if one futures lot of XYZ company has 1000 shares. And if the price of one share is Rs.100. So, if one were to buy 1000 shares, then the total value to be invested will be Rs. 100000 (1000*100). But, to trade futures contract, one has to keep only Rs. 10000 (10% of total value) as margin.
  • Because the futures contract are regulated by exchange, liquidity is never a factor while trading futures contract. One can exit their position anytime from the market.
  • Because of the low margin requirement, small players and speculators get to be a part of bigger game
  • Short selling becomes very easy while trading Futures contract. And one can legally short position in the shares of the company, by shorting futures contract.
  • The buying or selling pressure in on particular underlying asset can help us to gauge the future demand and supply of the shares

Key Takeaways

In this article, we tried to cover what are futures contract, how they differ from forward contracts, how are futures contract traded in India, and the advantages of trading futures contracts. Here are a few of the key points to remember from this post.

  • Futures contract derive their value from the value of the underlying assets.
  • Because of the low margin requirement, the futures trading is very popular amongst traders
  • The futures contract are exchange regulated, there is never the question of trust amongst the traders
  • One can exit their existing futures contract position anytime from the market by taking an opposite position in the futures market.
  • It is also a very popular hedging instrument for already existing long position in the cash market
  • The Index futures are cash-settled
  • There are two methods of calculating the futures contract value – The cost of carry method or the Expectancy method

That’s all for this post. I hope this article on what are futures contract is useful to you. If you’ve got any queries related to this concept, feel free to ask below in the comment section. I’ll be happy to help. Happy trading and investing.

What are Forward Contracts cover

What are Forward Contracts? And How do they work!!

Understanding what are Forward Contracts along with its risks and outcomes: One of the most important key concepts to understand for a derivate trader is forward contracts.  Through this article, we aim to give a clear understanding of the Forward Market and Forward contract.

Today, we’ll cover what are forward contracts. We’ll also look into why do both the parties enter into the contract, possible outcomes, how they are settled, risks associated, and more. Let’s get started.

What are Forward Contracts?

The Forward contract, as the name suggests, is a financial derivative transaction that is settled at a specified date in the ‘future’. The forward contract derives its value from the value of the underlying asset. Therefore, in that regard, the futures and forward contracts have a lot of similarities.

The forward contract can be said to be the more ancient version of the futures contract. The basic framework of the futures contract is very similar to a forward contract. The forward contracts are still used, however, the scale and volume are very limited.

— Understanding Forward Contracts with an Example

Let us understand this concept further with the help of a simple example. Suppose, there are two parties involved. One is the manufacturer and designer of Silver jewelry. Let us call the manufacturer as “ABC Jewelers”. The other party involved is the importer of silver and he sells in bulk to jewelry shops. Let us call him “XYZ Dealer”.

Say, on 5th Aug 2020, the current price of 1 kg of silver is Rs. 65,000. ABC enters into an agreement to buy 50 kg of silver two months down the line. The agreed-upon price is the price of silver on 5th Aug 2020. Therefore, ABC has to pay Rs. 32,50,000 (65000*50) to XYX to buy 50 kg of silver on 5th Oct 2020.

In short, after two months, both the parties in the contract will have to honor their agreement irrespective of the price of silver at that time.

— Why both parties enter into the contract?

From the above context, the buyer of the silver (ABC) is of the view that the price will go up in the future and wants to lock in the prices to benefit from the increased price in the future. On the other hand, the seller of the silver (XYZ) is of the view that the price is most likely going to decline in the future and wants to benefit from the locked-in current price.

Both the parties involved in this transaction have opposing views and hence they enter into a forward contract to express their views.

— The possible outcomes of the Forward contract

Scenario 1: Either the silver price goes up

If the price of the silver goes up in the future, then ABC Jewelers stands to make a profit, and XYZ dealer is dealt loses. Say, if the price of silver goes up to Rs. 70,000 per kg after two months. So, the profit of ABC in this case will be = (70000-65000)*50 = Rs. 2,50,000. And the same is the loss for XYZ dealers.

Scenario 2: Either the silver price goes down

If the price of silver falls in the future, the XYZ dealers stand to make a profit, and ABC jewelers stand to make losses. For example, if the price of silver after 2 months falls down to Rs. 61,000 after two months. Here, the profit for XYZ dealers, in that case, will be = (65000-61000)*50 = Rs. 2,00,000. And, this will be the loss for ABC jewelers.

Scenario 3: If the price of silver remains unchanged

In that case, neither of the party (ABC or XYZ) will stand to lose or make any money from this contract.

How are forward contracts settled?

Forward contracts are settled via two ways, either cash-settled or the underlying asset is physically delivered.

1) Physical Settlement: Here, ABC jewelers pay XYZ dealers, the full agreed-upon amount (Rs. 32,50,000) of buying 50 kg of silver and in return gets the physical delivery of silver.

2) Cash Settlement: In this case, there is no actual physical delivery of silver. Just the cash differential has to be paid. Say, if the price of silver goes up, then XYZ dealers will have to give the cash differential to ABC jewelers. And if the price of silver goes down then XYZ dealers receive cash differential from ABC jewelers.

Assume, if the price of silver goes up to Rs. 67500 per kg. Then, XYZ dealer pays Rs. 1,25,000 ((67500-65000)*50) to ABC Jewelers for cash settlement.

Risks Associated while Trading Forward Contracts

Following are some of the risks associated with trading Forward contracts

  • Liquidity Risk: Theoretically, the parties with opposing views enter into a forward transaction. But, in reality, it is difficult to find two parties having an opposing view and willing to enter into the forward transaction. Therefore, the parties involved will have to approach the investment bank and who in turn scouts for willful parties willing to enter the forward contract.
  • Cost: The cost is a big factor in the forward contract. As the investment banks are involved in finding parties to enter into a forward contract, they come at a cost i.e., fee. Therefore, even if the price goes in favor of one of the parties, they make real profit only after the cost (fee to investment bank) is recovered.
  • Default Risk: The default risk is very much if losing party upon the expiry does not pay up the other party i.e., it defaults.
  • Regulation Risk: There is no regulatory framework while dealing with a forward contract. They are entered into with the mutual consent of the willing parties. Therefore, there is a situation of lawlessness and which is where the chances of default also increase.
  • Non Exit able before expiry: Say, halfway through the contact, if the view of one of the party reverses, then there is no way to exit the contract before expiry. There is no clause of foreclosure. The only option which they have is to enter into another agreement which again is a tedious and cost consuming process.

Also read- Options Trading 101: The Big Cat of Trading World

Conclusion

In this article, we tried to cover what are future contracts and how future market actually works in terms of transactions and settlement. Let us quickly conclude what we discussed here:

  • The basic premise while trading both forward and futures contracts are the same.
  • The forward contracts are contracts that are settled at a future date.
  • They are not traded via an exchange. The forward contracts are Over the counter – OTC  derivative.
  • The forward contracts are non exit-able before the expiry.
  • These contracts can be either physically delivered or it can be cash-settled.

That’s all for this post. I hope it was useful to you. If you still have any queries related to future contracts, feel free to comment below. I’ll be happy to help. Happy trading and investing.

Understanding what are Fibonacci Retracements and how to use it while trading

Fibonacci Retracements: How to use it in Technical Analysis?

Understanding what are Fibonacci Retracements and how to use it while trading: The concept of Fibonacci was introduced by Italian Mathematician called Fibonacci (also known as Leonardo Bonacci or Leonardo of Pisa). This concept was primarily introduced to solve the problem of understanding the population growth of Rabbits. And it has now become one of the most interesting and sought after concepts in Mathematics and Trading.

In this article, we’ll cover what is a Fibonacci Series, the implication of Fibonacci on trading, and how exactly to use Fibonacci while Trading. Let’s get started.

What is Fibonacci Series?

The Fibonacci is a series of numbers starting from zero and arranged in such a way that the next number is a summation of the previous two numbers.

Therefore, the Fibonacci series is as follows: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377………

Here are the calculation involved while finding the numbers in the Fibonacci series:

  • 0 + 1 = 1
  • 1 + 1 = 2
  • 1 + 2 = 3
  • 3 + 5 = 8
  • 5 + 8 = 13
  • 8 + 13 = 21
  • 13 + 21 = 34 and so on.

A Few Fun Facts about Fibonacci series

Before moving forward, here are a few fun facts about Fibonacci series that you should know:

  • If we divide any number by the previous number, then the ratio is always equal to 1.618 (233/144 or 144/89 or 89/55 or 55/34, etc.)
  • Second, if we divide the number by the next number, then the ratio is always equal to 0.618 (21/34 or 34/55 or 55/89 etc.)

Needless to that the number 0.618 (or 61.8%) holds a lot of significance while calculating Fibonacci.

  • If we divid any number in the series by a number which is two places higher, then the ratio is always equal to 0.382 (21/55 or 34/89 or 55/ 144, etc.)
  • And if we divide any number in the series by a number which is three places higher, then the ratio is always equal to 0.236 (21/89 or 34/144 or 55/233, etc.)

From the above facts, we get the percentage series for Fibonacci to be 61.8%, 38.2%, 23.6%

The implication of Fibonacci on trading

The Fibonacci series of 61.8%, 38.25, and 23.6% have a very impactful presence in all the charts of the share price of any company. It is applied regularly when we see movement in the prices of the shares. And it can be applied in all the time frames.

It is a known fact that the share price of the company does not move in one direction. The prices always have a zig-zag pattern. If the share price of the company has gone up from 100 to 150, then before having another leg up, it is most likely to retrace back. But to find the level of retracement, Fibonacci retracement levels come in very handy.

For example, if the share price of the company before going up = Rs. 100. In, the first leg of the move, the share price goes up to = Rs. 150

Therefore, if the share price retraces to 38.2% then it will fall to = 150 – 38% of 50 = 131. And if the share price retraces to 61%, then it will fall to = 150 – 61 % of 50 = 119 (approx.)

fibonacci retracements for Daily chart of Maruti

Fig 1: Daily chart of Maruti (www.zerodha.com)

If we look at the above figure above, Maruti looks strong in the move up from Rs. 4000 to Rs. 5500. And looks poised to go up more. But before going up, the market makes a correction and it’s till the projection range of 38.2% to 61.2%. And after consolidating in that range, it makes a fresh move up and makes new recent high.

Therefore, if someone is looking for a correction in the market, Fibonacci retracements are a very useful tool and it also helps in entering the market if someone had missed the first move in the market.

fibonacci retracement example

Fig 2: Daily chart of BajajFinsv (www.zerodha.com)

In fig 2, If we look at the figure above, the share price of BajajFinsv is on a downward trend. And looks poised to fall more.

However, before falling, the market has made a small correction rally and is consolidating around a 38% retracement level. And now we see, that the share price is making lower highs and lower lows. Therefore, we could see the bearish momentum coming back and market breaking or re-testing previous lows.

Uses of Fibonacci while Trading

Assume, if we are looking to buy the stocks of a particular company but because of the strong momentum in the price, the share price has gone up substantially and it is very expensive to buy the shares at the current price. Here, we wait for a correction in the share price of the company and wait for it to retrace around 61.8%, 38.2%, or 23.6% levels.

Anyways, before picking the right retracement levels, the following factors also need to be considered: The candlesticks formation near the retracement levels, The price action around the level, The support and resistances around it, The volume at these retracement levels, And the overall fundamental picture.

Conclusion

In this article, we tried to explain what are Fibonacci Retracements and how to use it while trading. Here are a few conclusions from this post to take away:

  • The Fibonacci should be used when one is looking to plot the retracement or projection levels.
  • Then Fibonacci is useful when one has missed the entry at first instance but is still interested in buying the shares of a particular company.
  • The important levels of Fibonacci are 61.8%, 38.2%, and 23.6%
  • Just the Retracement levels of Fibonacci should not be the only basis of entering the trade. Overall, fundamental and technical factors should also be considered.

That’s all for this article. I hope it was helpful to you. If you have any doubts related to Fibonacci Retracements, feel free to comment below. I’ll be happy to help. Happy trading.

Understanding Volume Profile for Technical Analysis

How to use Volume Profile while Trading? – Technical Analysis Basics

Understanding Volume Profile for Technical Analysis: In today’s day and age, the success of any movie depends on the number of people viewing it. If the movie has a large audience anticipating it, then we can be assured that it will have a large audience watching it and which in turn garners success for the movie. Here, the number/volume of the audience plays a very key role in the success of the movie.

Further, if we were to take the example of television series or any online series, its success is measured by the number of viewers. Game of Thrones (GoT) is a classic example of it. It has one of the largest numbers of viewership in online content history. Therefore, eventually, it all boils down to the volume or number of people watching.

Similarly, in trading also, the volume is the number of shares traded on a day to day basis. If there is no volume, then the price of shares won’t move. In short, volume plays a key role in deciding the movement. In this article, we are going to discuss what is Volume Profile, how is volume calculated, the correlation between volume and price, and the Correlation between Candlesticks, Supports & Resistances with Volume. Let’s get started.

What is Volume Profile?

In simple terms, volume simply signifies the number of shares traded of a particular company within a specified time. If a move in prices of shares happens with high volume then, it is considered to be more reliable. And the move can be expected to continue. But if the move happens on low volume, then the authenticity of the move is always questionable.

To confirm any pattern or to apply any technical indicator on the market, the Volume profile plays the most critical role. It plays an important role in confirming the trends or patterns in the market. It also plays a very big role in understanding the buyers’ or the seller’s perspectives. Without sizable volume, even the strongest of technical indicator or pattern might not hold much significance.

Quick note: Market Profile or MKTP is the synonym for volume profile. They are used interchangeably.

How is Volume calculated?

From the above explanation, we understood that Volume simply signifies the number of shares bought or sold within a specified time-frame. The more active the share is, the higher the volume and vice-versa.

For example, in the case of RIL, if for the price of Rs. 1,900, a total of 50 share been bought and 50 share being sold, then the volume here is 50 (and not 100). For the correct volume calculation, there has to be a buyer for every seller to complete a transaction. We should not consider the volume to be 100 (50 buys + 50 sell). Let us understand it with the help of an example:

How is Volume calculated?

So, from the table above, we can notice different buying and selling activities for the security for the different levels of time. The buyers and sellers meet to create volume for the share. And the cumulative volume is a summation of all the volume traded for the day.

The following tables show the volume change in the market for the most active securities on NSE with a time gap of 40 minutes.

The following tables show the volume change in the market for the most active securities on NSE with a time gap of 40 minutes.

Figure 1: Most active share at 11.42 am (21/07/2020, NSE India)

Figure 2: Most active share at 12.22 pm (21/07/2020, NSE India)

Now, if we were to compare to the tables above, we can see the volume table of most active security and the change in them with a gap of 40 minutes.

If we take the example of Bajaj Finance from Table, we see the change in price by Rs 8 (reduced) and the volume has increased by nearly 50% in 40 minutes. So, the move with this volume can be said to be genuine and not artificial. Any move with sizable volume helps the technical charts and indicators to take shape.

Correlation between Volume and Price

While trading with keeping volume in mind, the prior price and volume trend is of high significance. If the move happens, with the volume near its average volume or more than average volume, then that move holds more significance, than the move with thin or low volume.

Now, let us understand the correlation between volume and price with the help of the following table:

Correlation between Volume and Price

If the price increases with an increase in volume, then the expectation from the market is that the bullishness or strength is expected to continue. And if the same move were to happen with low volume, we can say that one needs to be cautious and be careful about forecasting the next move.

Similarly, if the price of the share reduces, with increased volume, we can expect the bearishness to sustain and continue. And if the same move happens on less volume, we need to be careful with the next leg of this move. And similar interpretation can be done for Rangy markets.

Participants on Low and High Volume days

If the market is trading with low volume, we can say that there is a lot of retail player’s participation in the market.

However, if the market is trading on high volume, we can say that there is a lot of institutional buying and selling in the market. Higher volume moves have better conviction and a higher chance of a continuation of the move, in the near future.

Correlation between Candlesticks, S&R and Volume

If the candlestick pattern gives certain trade patterns and if the signal were to come near the supports and Resistances and to top it off if the volume profile were aligned with the technical signals, then the trade can be said to have a very high probability of being successful.

In other words, a marriage of technical factors along with volume goes a long way in generating strong trading signals. Traders can benefit significantly from it if spotted at the right time.

Also read: Introduction to Candlesticks – Single Candlestick Patterns

Conclusion

Let us quickly conclude what we discussed in this article:

  • Volume is one of the most important indicators in understanding the trend of the market.
  • It provides a very strong impetus to our technical view on the market.
  • If the market is trading on low volume, we can say that retail traders are participating in the move.
  • If the price increases with an increase in volume, we can expect the bullishness or strength to continue (and vice versa).
  • And, if the market trades on high volume, it generally is a signal that institutional players are participating in the market

That’s all for this post on Volume Profile. I hope it was useful for you. If you have any doubts regarding volume while trading in stocks, feel free to comment below. I’ll be happy to help. Happy trading.

Search Topic or Keyword
Easiest Stock Screener Tool!

Best stock discovery tool with +130 filters, built for fundamental analysis. Profitability, Growth, Valuation, Liquidity, and many more filters. Search Stocks Industry-wise, Export Data For Offline Analysis, Customizable Filters.

Start your stock analysis journey with Trade Brains Portal today. Launch here!

Best Offers – Instant Demat Account

Zerodha – No 1 Stockbroker in India

Kotak Securities – Trade FREE Plan