# 8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know!

**List of Must Know Financial Ratio Analysis for Stock Market Investors**: Evaluating a company is a very tedious job. Judging the efficiency and true value of a company is not an easy task it demands rigorously reading the company financial statements like balance sheet, profit and loss statements, cash-flow statement, etc.

Since it is tough to go through all the information available on a company’s financial statements, the investors have found some shortcuts in the form of financial ratios. These financial ratios are available to make the life of a stock investor comparatively simple. Using these ratios, the stock market investors can choose the right companies to invest in or can compare the financials of two companies to find out which one is a better investment opportunity.

In this post, we are going to discuss eight of such Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know.

This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, we’ll cover the definitions and examples of these eight must know financial ratios. In the second part, after the financial ratio analysis, we’ll discuss how and where to find these ratios. Therefore, be with us for the next 8-10 minutes to enhance your stock market analysis knowledge. Let’s get started.

Quick note: Do not worry much about calculations of these ratios or try to mug up the formulas by-heart. All these financial ratios are easily available on various financial websites. Nonetheless, we will recommend you to understand the basics of the financial ratio analysis as it will be helpful in building a good foundation for your stock research in future.

## PART A: 8 Financial Ratio Analysis For Stock Investor

### 1. Earnings Per Share (EPS)

EPS is the first most important ratio in our list. It is very important to understand Earnings per share (EPS) before we study any other ratios, as the value of EPS is also used in various other financial ratios for their calculation.

EPS is basically the net profit that a company has made in a given time period divided by the total outstanding shares of the company. Generally, EPS can be calculated on an Annual basis or Quarterly basis. Preferred shares are not included while calculating EPS.

*Earnings Per Share (EPS) = (Net income – Dividends from preferred stock)/(Average outstanding shares)*

From the perspective of an investor, it’s always better to invest in a company with higher and growing EPS as it means that the company is generating greater profits. Before investing in any company, you should always check past EPS for the last five years. If the EPS is growing for these years, it’s a good sign and if the EPS is regularly falling, stagnant or erratic, then you should start searching for another company.

### 2. Price to Earnings (PE) Ratio

The Price to Earnings ratio is one of the most widely used financial ratio analysis among investors for a very long time. A high PE ratio generally shows that the investor is paying more for the share. The PE ratio is calculated using this formula:

*Price to Earnings Ratio= (Price Per Share)/( Earnings Per Share)*

Now let us look at the components of the PE ratio. It’s easier to find the price of the share which is the current closing stock price. For the earnings per share, we can have either trailing EPS (earnings per share based on the past 12 months) or Forward EPS i.e. Estimated basic earnings per share based on a forward 12-month projection. It’s easier to find the trailing EPS as we already have the result of the past twelve month’s performance of the company.

For example, a company with the current share price of Rs 100 and EPS of Rs 20, will have a PE ratio of 5. As a thumb rule, a low PE ratio is preferred while buying a stock. However, the definition of ‘low’ varies from industries to industries.

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Different industries (Ex Automobile, Banks, IT, Pharma, etc) have different PE ratios for the companies in their industry (Also known as Industry PE). Comparing the PE ratio of the company of one sector with the PE ratio of the company of another sector will be insignificant. For example, it’s not much use to compare the PE of an automobile company with the PE of an IT company. However, you can use the PE ratio to compare the companies in the same industry, preferring one with low PE.

### 3. Price to Book (PBV) Ratio

Price to Book Ratio (PBV) is calculated by dividing the current price of the stock by the book value per share. Here, Book value can be considered as the net asset value of a company and is calculated as total assets minus intangible assets (patents, goodwill) and liabilities. Here’s the formula for PBV ratio:

*Price to Book Ratio = (Price per Share)/( Book Value per Share)*

PBV ratio is an indication of how much shareholders are paying for the net assets of a company. Generally, a lower PBV ratio could mean that the stock is undervalued.

However, again the definition of lower varies from industry to industry. There should be an apple to apple comparison while looking into PBV ratio. The price to book value ratio of an IT company should only be compared with PBV of another IT company, not any other industry.

### 4. Debt to Equity (DE) Ratio

The debt-to-equity ratio measures the relationship between the amount of capital that has been borrowed (i.e. debt) and the amount of capital contributed by shareholders (i.e. equity).

*Debt to Equity Ratio =(Total Liabilities)/(Total Shareholder Equity)*

Generally, as a firm’s debt-to-equity ratio increases, it becomes riskier as it means that a company is using more leverage and has a weaker equity position. As a thumb of rule, companies with a debt-to-equity ratio of more than one are risky and should be considered carefully before investing.

### 5. Return on Equity (ROE)

Return on equity (ROE) is the amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders’ equity. ROE measures a corporation’s profitability by revealing how much profit a company generates with the money shareholders have invested. In other words, ROE tells you how good a company is at rewarding its shareholders for their investment.

*Return on Equity = (Net Income)/(Average Stockholder Equity)*

As a thumb rule, always invest in a company with ROE greater than 20% for at least the last 3 years. Year-on-year growth in ROE is also a good sign.

### 6. Price to Sales Ratio (P/S)

The stock’s price/sales ratio (P/S) ratio measures the price of a company’s stock against its annual sales. P/S ratio is another stock valuation indicator similar to the P/E ratio.

*Price to Sales Ratio = (Price per Share)/(Annual Sales Per Share)*

The P/S ratio is a great tool because sales figures are considered to be relatively reliable while other income statement items, like earnings, can be easily manipulated by using different accounting rules.

### 7. Current Ratio

The current ratio is a key financial ratio for evaluating a company’s liquidity. It measures the proportion of current assets available to cover current liabilities. The current ratio can be calculated as:

*Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)*

This ratio tells the company’s ability to pay its short-term liabilities with its short-term assets. If the ratio is over 1.0, the firm has more short-term assets than short-term debts. But if the current ratio is less than 1.0, the opposite is true and the company could be vulnerable. As a thumb rule, always invest in a company with a current ratio greater than 1.

### 8. Dividend Yield

A stock’s dividend yield is calculated as the company’s annual cash dividend per share divided by the current price of the stock and is expressed in annual percentage. Mathematically, it can be calculated as:

*Dividend Yield = (Dividend per Share)/(Price per Share)*100*

For Example, If the share price of a company is Rs 100 and it is giving a dividend of Rs 10, then the dividend yield will be 10%.

A lot of growing companies do not give dividends, rather reinvest their income in their growth. Therefore, it totally depends on the investor whether he wants to invest in a high or low dividend yielding company. Anyways, as a thumb rule, consistent or growing dividend yield is a good sign for dividend investors.

## PART B: Finding Financial Ratios

Now that we have understood the key financial ratio analysis, next we should move towards where and how to find these financial ratios.

For an Indian Investor, many big financial websites where you can find all the key ratios mentioned above along with other important financial information. For example – Money Control, Yahoo Finance, Economic Time Markets, Screener, Investing[dot]com, Market Mojo, etc.

Further, you can also use our stock market analysis website “Trade Brains Portal“, to find these ratios. Let me show you how to find these key financial ratios on Trade Brains Portal. Let’s say, you want to look into all the above-mentioned financial ratios for “Reliance Industries”. Here’s what you need to do next.

**Steps to find Key Ratios on Trade Brains Portal**

1) Go to Trade Brains Portal at https://portal.tradebrains.in/ and search for ‘Reliance Industries’.

2) Select the company. This will take you to the “Reliance Industries” stock detail Page.

3) Scroll down to ‘**5 Year Analysis & Factsheet’ **and here you can find all the financial ratios for the last five years.

You can find all the key financial ratio analysis discussed in this article on this section of stock details. In addition, you can also look into other popular financial ratios like Profitability ratio, Efficiency ratio, Valuation ratio, Liquidity ratio, and more.

**Conclusion**

In this article, we discussed the list of Must Know Financial Ratio Analysis for stock market investors. Now, let us give you a quick summary of all the key financial ratios mentioned in the post.

**8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know:**

- Earnings Per Share (EPS) –
*Increasing for last 5 years* - Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E) –
*Low compared to companies in the same sector* - Price to Book Ratio (P/B) –
*Low compared to companies in the same sector* - Debt to Equity Ratio –
*Should be less than 1* - Return on Equity (ROE) –
*Should be greater than 20%* - Price to Sales Ratio (P/S) –
*Smaller ratio (less than 1) is preferred* - Current Ratio –
*Should be greater than 1* - Dividend Yield –
*Consistent/ Increasing yield preferred*

In addition, here is a checklist (*that you should download*), which can help you to select a fundamentally strong company based on the financial ratios. Also, feel free to share this image with those whom you think can get benefit from the checklist.

That’s all for this post. Hope this article on ‘8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know’ was useful for you. If you have any doubt or need any further clarification, feel free to comment below. We will be happy to help you. Take care and happy investing.

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Hi, I am Kritesh *(Tweet me here)*, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

iam Ramesh. Warren Buffett says. The Roce ratio is an indicatator of company that has a high ratio is a healthy bussiness. a low Roce below Bank interest rates shown an inefficient bussines that must be avoided. How where to understand bank interest rates. Please help me

Roe everyou will change

Nice blog very informative.

Thanks sir

You are welcome Raheem.

Hi Kritesh,

I am a beginner to stock market investment.

I felt this is a best place for beginner to understand how to start investing in stock market. All you articles in traders.in are informative and very easy to understand for a beginner.

Just have few queries related to above article.

I understood what is P/B and P/S, but could not get significance of a same in selecting a stock. Could you please help me out on the same?

Hi. A lower P/B ratio means that the stock is undervalued. Similarly, A low P/S ratio may indicate possible undervaluation, while a ratio that is significantly above the average may suggest overvaluation. You can read more here: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/price-to-bookratio.asp

Hi Kritesh.

I have one doubt. Suppose if we calculate the value of a particular stock using the 8 financial ratio and found that a stock is good, then how long will that stock stay in that condition. (i.e) the validity of the ratio analysis of that particular stock.

Hi Selvaganapathi! Great question. You have to continously monitor the stock by tracking the quaterly results of the company once you have bought. It won’t be that tough as it will require just few hours every quater. If the fundamentals of the company continue to detoriate, say the EPS is falling for next 2 quaters without any understandable reason quoted by the management, then you might need to reconsider about holding that stock for long.

I am beginner to share market I think ur information given me basic foundation.

Thank u and wish u happy Dasara

You are welcome. And a happy dusherra to you too.

informative

You are welcome Ashish.

Hey! I’m in 11th standard and I don’t know much about share market but I find it very interesting and I’m trying to learn about it. The article was really informative and helpful. Thank you so much.

Could you please explain what’s adv index. It’d be a great help. Thanks!

Moreover, what’s s&p and what it has to do with India?

Hi Prachi. Glad the article was useful to you.

An advanced indexis a tool that represents the total difference between the number of advancing and declining stock prices. It can provide much more insight into the movements of the market that the market Index. You can read more here. S&P stands for standards and poor and The S&P BSE SENSEX, also called the BSE 30 or SENSEX, is a free-float market-weighted stock market index of 30 well-established and financially sound companies listed on Bombay Stock Exchange.It’s similar to the S&P 500 of NASDAQ. I hope this is helpful. Do lemme know if you have any other doubts and Keep learning.That was fast. Oh, so s&p is another name for BSE! I get it.

Yeah, it was really helpful. Thanks a ton. And I’ll let you know if I have any other doubts. 🙂

Though, it may sound lame but I’m just curious to know that who calculates all this? I mean there must be an in charge of stock exchanges. And people working on it. Do you have any idea about it? Is it a good field?

SEBI (Securities exchange board of India) regulates the stock exchange in India and Yes, it’s a very interesting field.

All right. Thank you!

I’ll look into it.

Hi Kritesh

Your article is very helpful.I have two queries.Could you please on this

query1:-

1)Could you please https://www.screener.in/ query for this 8 parameters

Earnings Per Share (EPS) – Increasing for last 5 years

Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E) – Low compared to companies in same sector

Price to Book Ratio (P/B) – Low compared companies in same sector

Debt to Equity Ratio – Should be less than 1

Return on Equity (ROE) – Should be greater that 20%

Price to Sales Ratio (P/S) – Smaller ratio (less than 1) is preferred

Current Ratio – Should be greater than 1

query2:-

Regarding EPS which one we need to consider from money control?

1)Basic EPS or Diluted EPS or Cash EPS or something else?

2)Regarding ROE which one we need to consider from money control?

Return on Networth / Equity (%) or something else?

1) You can run most of these criteria on the screener. I have explained it in details here. However, there is no universal query. You have to make 2-3 itineraries to find the best stocks. For few of them, you have to check individually. For example, low PE is preferable, but what is low, it depends on the industry. You have to check the PEs with the competitors and industry.

2) In general, check the basic EPS (unless the company has convertible securities like convertible bonds or preferred stocks). Further, RONW us same to ROE. I hope it helps.

Hi Kritesh. I am new to stock market. i think i am getting answers to all my basic questions on ur website. so i am slowly nibbling at the information u have uploaded. it is worth appreciating ur efforts of sharing knowledge to others. u do good .. good will come back to u.

now for my query on this topic.. i am unable to find price to sales ratios, u mentioned, on money control. can u pls guide me. ty

The article is is written is a simple language and easy to understand. Many investors place emphasis on Return on capital employed (ROCE) and Cash Flowand treat them as most important . If you can cover those ratios , we can benefit from your presentation.

Hi Vasudev. I have covered other ratios in details here: #19 Most Important Financial Ratios for Investors. I hope it helps. Cheers!

An absolute eye opener for a beginner in stock market. Thank you very much for the article and discussion on the forum

Glad it was helpful. Cheers!

A nice page for beginners and others to understand the basics required before trading!

Your guidance is Very valuable sir thanks for all

I am very new for this area,I understand very well about 8 financial ratios.it is excellently useful while selecting best stock

Thank you sir

This is my 1st blog review for the share market , and thanks to update me for all the important topics.

I have invested 1st time as per your input and happy to see profits.

thanks a lots….

Hi… Kritesh…

I am Sandeep …..

Tell me about taxes apply to the equity fund ( stock market) in india…..?? How much taxes apply on long term holding as well as short term holding stocks…

hi regarding the checklist you mention at end of your article, do you mean the checklist (image) called: 5 Simple Financial Ratios for Stock Picking or did you mean to reference another checklist? if so, can you post that? appreciated. Neveen

really good for me as a beginner, thanks a lot. really good. ill checek out your others blog too.

how to select growth or multibagger stock